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Edited by 
Mary Barrow Owen 

Nellie M. Moore Miriam E. Hoyt 

Algine F. Neely Ada H. Allen 

Douglas L. Rights 

Sponsored by 

The Garden Club of North Carolina 


F"iRST Edition 

Copyright 1941 


The Garden Club of North Carolina 



increasing appreciation of historical centers in the United States. 
We have found greater interest among our people in the way our 
nation has come to be what it is today. 

America, a land of variety, made up of many social groups, 
presents no uniform pattern. It is truly "E Pluribus Unum," one 
out of many, and we do not understand ourselves today without 
consideration of the colorful and varied background. 

Notable efforts have been made to contribute to the under- 
standing of our social development. Mr. Ford has assembled a 
remarkable collection of antiquities in his village in Michigan; 
Mr. Rockefeller has restored Williamsburg; Boston, Philadelphia, 
Charleston, St. Augustine, New Orleans, and a score of other 
cities have seized opportunity to safeguard buildings and col- 
lections of antiquities that reveal the manner of living in earlier 

In Winston-Salem we consider ourselves fortunate, not only in 
having a history worthy of record, but also in having preserved so 
much that helps to tell the story. 

To make the story of our distinctive contribution better known, 
The Garden Club of North Carolina has made possible the 
compilation of this volume, whereby customs, ideals and manner 
of living in this community, as revealed in its earlier develop- 
ment, are set forth for the reader of today. 

This book does not tell the whole story, but it does reveal much 
that brings us in intimate association with our predecessors. 

This publication appears appropriately in the year of the 175th 
anniversary of the founding of our city. 

Douglas L. Rights 

President Wachovia Historical Society 



Foreword — Douglas L. Rights --------- 5 

Introduction — Mary B. Owen --------- 9 

Builders of Old Salem — Bishop J. K. Pfohl, D.D. - - - - 13 

The Fourth House - - - - . - 22 

The Brothers' House — Algine Neely 24 

Music in Salem — Charles G. Vardell, Jr. 29 

Sisters' House — Nettie Allen Thomas - . - 38 

Revolutionary War Time in Salem ------- 42 

Salem Boys' School — Kate Urquhart -------- 47 

Mayor Joshua Boner's House --------- 54 

Chimney House ------------- 55 

Poem — Ruth Crist Blackwell 58 

Industries in Old Salem — Margaret G. Leinbach 59 

The Reich House ------------ 64 

The Home Church ------------ 67 

Salem Academy and Salem College — Katherine B. Rondthaler - 70 

The Vierling House — Edwin L. Stockton ------ 78 

Winkler's Bakery — Annie Lee Singletary ------ 82 

The Little Red Man — John Henry Boner ------ 86 

The John Vogler House — Ida Wilkinson - - - - - - 108 

The Land Office — Catherine Elizabeth Leinbach - - - - - 1 1 1 

The Blum House — Algine Foy Neely - - 114 

Old Salem Gardens — Adelaide L. Fries 117 

The Van Vleck Sisters — Mary B.Owen 123 

The Bank Building — Douglas L. Rights - 127 

Mrs. Henry T. Bahnson's House — Louise Bahnson Haywood - - 130 

The John D. Siewers House — Grace L. Siewers ----- 134 

The Belo House — William A. Blair - - - - - - - - 136 

The Boner House — Cornelia Leinbach - - - - - - - 142 

Broken and Desolate — Poem by John Henry Boner - - - - 146 

The John Henry Leinbach House — Lucy Leinbach Wenhold - - 148 

Musician's House ------------ 150 

Home of the Christmas Star --------- 152 

Christmas of Yesterday and Day before Yesterday — 

Mary B. Owen ------------I54 

Easter — Mary B. Owen 160 



flagstone sidewalks of old Salem have yielded to 
modem paving and teeming traffic, many of the 
original buildings of old world architecture are still 
G^5:^5i3^) in use, though not the use for which they were de- 
signed. These speak of community life, and peaceful ways, and 
simple tastes little known in the stress and tension of today. 

Salem was the central settlement of the hundred thousand acre 
tract purchased from Lord C.ranville in 1752, as a refuge for perse- 
cuted Protestants from Bohemia and Moravia, in central Europe, 
known as the United Brethren, and later as Moravians. 

The town was definitely planned, the streets and their widths 
were designated on a map, together with the placing of the various 
buildings, thus showing that this primitive community was 
among the first in the country to adopt a city plan. As early as 
1785 a fire engine was imported from Europe, having leather 
buckets, and operated by hand. 

The first log house was occupied on February 19, 1766, and on 
the following day the town "Square" was laid out. Around this 
were grouped the church, the Female Academy, the Sisters' 
House, the Brothers' House and the Boys' School. A little way 
down the street was the Tavern. All of these buildings are in good 
preservation, and in use today, showing with what care and pains- 
taking workmanship the builders wrought. It was natural that 
these community houses should be reminiscent of the homeland, 
particularly the Sisters' and the Brothers' Houses. While built 
flush with the street, each owned considerable land in the rear, 
with well cultivated gardens, where even today a few lonely stars 
of Bethlehem speak of hands that have long been dust, that 
planted and tended them. At the far end of the Brothers' House 
garden was a spring and a stone spring house, whence each brother 
was required to fetch his own milk and water for meals. Corn- 
wallis' soldiers are said to have drunk from this spring on their 
visit to Salem. 


In the Sisters' House garden a summer house was placed among 
the flower beds, and here the sisters took their knitting, and en- 
joyed their afternoon cofi"ee together. The Sisters' House is now 
a part of the adjacent college, and the Brothers' House serves as 
the Moravian Church Home. 

The old grey church, however, is still the house of worship, and 
the building of so commodious a church in that day, when the 
congregation numbered less than two hundred, proves the vision 
of the pioneers. 

The college next door, has evolved from the Female Academy 
of more than a hundred years ago; and the Boys' School on the 
corner has become a unit of the Wachovia Historical Society. 

The Tavern also is well preserved, though built in 1784, replac- 
ing an earlier one destroyed by fire. Many and fascinating are the 
tales emanating from these venerable brick walls, and some dis- 
tinguished feet have paced the wide floor boards. 

These Moravians were a frugal and industrious people, and 
their homes were very simple, though comfortable withal, and 
happy with hospitable firesides, as in the Old Chimney House 
illustrated in a later article. 

Though all those who wrought in the early days have long been 
gone, their influence still lives, and an atmosphere not found else- 
where still pervades the echoing old hallways and the shadowy 
garden paths. 

Mary B. Owen 


A typical hooded Doorway 


"come with me and tell me the story of the builders of 
Old Salem," said one of America's foremost architects, some 
years ago. 

"Gladly, " I replied, "but I suggest that you tell me, first, some 
of your observations. It may give direction to what I shall say." 

Then, all intent to hear what he had to say, I listened as he 
gave me first impressions of my native town, through the eyes 
of an artist of high standing. 

"A community of rare charm," he said. "Not another town 
which 'just happened'; not one which sprang up around a cross- 
roads store, of which America has so many. A town with a purpose 
back of it, I would say; not built haphazardly but after careful 
planning and by men of culture and remarkable craftsmanship. 
Simplicity with stability! Large institutional buildings remark- 
able for the period in which they were built and the limited re- 
sources of the time. Attractive dwellings, too, blending in general 
architectural features, but carrying an air of individuality. 
Colonial design, a sort of Georgian Colonial, generally speaking, 
yet not just that. There are characteristics all its own. Moravian 
Colonial would be more exact. A community with a distinctive 
atmosphere, the kind one wants to know more about." 

"That accounts for my question. Who were those Moravians? 
What was their background? Why did they come to North 
Carolina? Let me hear something of their story." 

So I told him the story, as we sat together under the shade of 
ancient trees on the campus of Salem College, much as I now 
tell it again. 

They were a deeply religious people, those Moravians, and 
predominantly, but not wholly, German. They came to America 
in the period of wide colonization which marked the half-century 
and more preceding the Revolutionary War. Their name " Mora- 
vian" was really a nickname, given to them as a body of Christ- 
ians, because some of their number had come out of Moravia, 
a province of Austria. They were the spiritual successors of the 


ancient Brethren's Church or Unitas Fratum, which flourished 
in Bohemia in the fifteenth century, and then spread into Moravia 
and Poland, and, before the Thirty Years War laid it low, num- 
bered some 300,000 members. In those days they were known as 
Pioneers of Protestantism and as the Martyr Church, their 
organization dating from 1457 and their spiritual lineage tracing 
back to John Hus. 

Remnants of this Church surviving the persecutions fled to 
Saxony. They were joined by many others, at Herrnhut, on the 
lands of the young Count Nicholas Lewis Zinzendorf, their spirit- 
ual life was renewed in 1727 and, five years later, their ancient 
Church fully organized on the basis of its former statutes lived 

But there was much unrest among the various groups of 
Christians in southern Germany about the middle of the eight- 
eenth century. Persecution and restricted opportunity at home 
led many to look with yearning towards the wider and un- 
hampered life of the New World. Awakening interest in the 
spread of the gospel among the Indians furnished an additional 
motive. So, along with other Christian bodies, it was decided that 
Moravians should come to the land of wide privilege and service 
on the west side of the Atlantic. 

Count Zinzendorf arranged for their settlement in three sections 
of the country, in Georgia, in Pennsylvania and in North Caro- 
lina. The beginning in the last named portion took place in 1753 
at Bethabara, five miles north of Winston-Salem, and the found- 
ing of Salem was on January 6, 1766. The name "Salem" means 
"peace" and was selected by Zinzendorf himself, because he 
hoped that from the beginning, peace would characterize the 
central town of the colony. 

Carefully made plans, not altogether suited to the terraine, 
however, had been prepared in Herrnhut and were entrusted to 
those who were to make the actual beginning on the 100,000 acre 
tract purchased from Lord Granville of England, one of the 
Lords Proprietors. The settlement was to follow four distinct 
lines of development and service. It was to be a religious com- 
munity centered around the church which was to have prominent 
place on the public square, together with the institutional build- 


Inspector's House and Home Church, Salem Square 

ings belonging to the Moravian way of life. Close beside the 
church, school buildings for boys and girls were to be erected, for 
education and religion were to go hand in hand. Then industries 
were to be started, and, from their proceeds money was to be 
gained for pressing missionary work among the Indians and for 
the carrying forward of the work of the Church. 

Simple faith and trust in God and His Providence through the 
years are evidenced by the daily records carefully kept and mark 
the entire undertaking as a Kingdom venture entered upon for 
the Glory of God and the advancement of His cause. Note the 
diary of Monday, January 6, 1766, the day of Salem's beginning. 
"A dozen brethren, partly from Bethania, partly from Bethabara, 
took a wagon and went to the new town site where, in the after- 
noon, they cut down trees on the place where the first house was 
to stand, singing several stanzas as they worked. The text for 
the day was beautifully appropriate for this little beginning of 
building, 'I will defend this city'." (Isaiah 37:35) When the first 
residence was begun on June 6, the record states, "The Brn. 
Grafif, Lorens and Reuter went to Salem, and with the Brethren 
there, 18 in all, gathered about noon on the site of the first house 
now to be erected on the main street. Bro. Grafif made a short 
address on the text for the day: 'I will have respect untoyou and 
make you fruitful and multiply you and establish my covenant 
with you'. (Lev. 26:9). During the singing of a stanza of a hymn, 
Bro. Lorenz laid the foundation stone on the south side; then 
Bro. GraflF offered an earnest prayer that the Holy Triune God 
would bless this building, consecrate it and guard it from harm. 
A spirit of grace and love pervaded the entire service." So they 
wrought always, through all the busy years of building, happy 
to account themselves "laborers together with God." 

That there were master builders among them there can be no 
doubt. It is equally certain that there were men and women of 
high esthetic taste, with love for the beautiful and desire to make 
their homes and the community attractive as well as stable. Not 
a few of the men represented the best which the Old World pro- 
duced, university graduates, widely traveled individuals who 
had had touch with the chief centers of culture. The women were 
skilled in the domestic arts and accomplished, not a few of them. 


Rear of Inspector's House 

in music and painting and those skills which make both the home 
and its surroundings attractive. Withal, they were godly men and 
women, their lives dedicated to Christ and the Kingdom and 
ready for any service or sacrifice by which the cause might be 

Outstanding among the leaders was Frederic William Marshall, 
often spoken of as the "founder of Salem." He bore the title of 
Senior Civilis and for the first period of the community's life 
directed its temporal afi'airs. He was the architect of the Church, 
erected in 1800, and superintended its construction, a great under- 
taking for that day. He served too as the head of the Board of 
Supervisors whose approval had to be had before any new build- 
ing could be begun. There is evidence that Marshall drew the 
plans for all the larger buildings just as he did for the Square and 
streets of the town. 

The first master mason was Melchior Rasp. He built the 
Brothers' House at the corner of Main and Academy Streets, the 
building which contains the large stone vaulted cellars, the 
wonder of modern visitors. The master carpenter was Christian 
Triebel, who in this same building showed such unusual skill in 
the wall construction. 

As far as possible, the men of Salem did their own building, 
calling in outside help only when absolutely necessary. They made 
their own brick and tile too, finding suitable clay in the hills 
bordering the south meadow. That these builders built well is 
evidenced by the fact that the structures which they erected have 
been in continuous use through the long years and are still in ex- 
cellent preservation. Where many of the older communities of 
state and nation are having to rebuild, Salem continues to use 
its original buildings. 

It would be a grievous error, however, were it judged that these 
buildings of Old Salem, which call forth our enthusiastic admira- 
tion and delight, were the end which the builders had in view. True, 
they built well and enduringly, giving the best they had to the 
task, and in a very real way expressing, through their hands and 
the tolls wherewith they wrought, the spirit that was in them. 
Yet material ends were not their goal. They built for ends far 


They were God-fearing men, humble followers of Jesus Christ 
and citizens of the Kingdom. Here in the New World where they 
believed themselves divinely led, they were seeking not only to 
exemplify the Christian way of life, but to bring others to know 
it, too, and accept it as their own. Here they sought the Christian 
purpose, the building of a community wherein righteousness 
would dwell. "The splendor of the spirit was their goal" and 
Christian character the standard of true greatness. 

Bishop J. Kenneth Pfohl, D.D. 


Frederic William Marshall 



longer standing. The Fourth House, however, is a joy to behold, 
in its authentic restoration by the Colonial Dames of North 
Carolina, through the members in Winston-Salem and Forsyth 

Situated on Main Street, the city's busiest thoroughfare, imagi- 
nation must be relied upon to picture this quaint cottage as it 
stood in the woods, "raised" on that November day, 1767. The 
very same year Governor Tryon's palace was begun in New Bern ! 

The cost of building the first houses in Salem was borne by the 
Moravian Church, the property being leased or rented to indi- 
viduals. Various people lived in this Fourth House till Charles 
Holder, the saddle-maker, married, when he leased the house, and 
lived there the rest of his life. It was later sold to one and another, 
and changes made, such as the addition of a front piazza and a 
dormer window. 

When the Colonial Dames purchased the property, however, 
and decided to restore the house, the old lines were faithfully 
adhered to, and today it stands in its original simplicity and in- 
viting quaintness. 

A worn doorstone leads to a divided Dutch door, which once 
did duty on the very first house in town, and was set in place when 
deer roamed the neighboring woods. The heav'y, wrought-iron 
hinges bear witness to the painstaking skill of the early Moravians, 
and a primitive wooden latch fastens the door. The wide floor- 
boards were cut from heart pine, one of the most enduring of 
woods. The builders needed to use only the finest, for here grew 
the choicest primeval timber to be found in the country. 

The outstanding fireplace and chimney are of the original, 
hand-made brick, doubtless manufactured on the premises. 

A white picket fence, whose alluring little gate boasts a colonial 
latch, encloses the small front yard, where prim boxwoods lead to 
the doorway. Perhaps it was just this tidy when the saddlemaker 
and his bride moved in so many years ago. 


The Fourth House, 450 South Main Street 



house in Salem, N. C, in 1766, the Brothers' House was begun. 
Upon its completion December, 1769, this building, now the 
Moravian Church Home, began its interesting history. Sixteen 
single men and four boys were the first to call this building home. 
They lived here with one especial purpose — that of learning a 

The Moravian men and Vjoys immediately laid out a large gar- 
den with some fruit trees back of the house. The garden, extending 
two blocks to a rock-bottom stream, was laid off in squares. Each 
man tended his own square. In the northwest corner of this garden 
was a spring from which Cornwallis drank when he and his army 
passed through Salem in 1781. 

In later years the Brothers' House was used as a widows' house. 
Later still the Moravian Church named the building the Moravian 
Church Home, and now single women also enjoy its quiet atmos- 
phere. One of the very first in the distinctly Moravian settlement, 
this typical Salem building has been occupied by Moravians all 
through the years. In its lines of endeavor each person had his job, 
and all worked for the good of the community. 

Similar to many old Salem homes, the front of the Moravian 
Church Home is built right at the edge of the sidewalk. Sub- 
stantial walls, wide doorways, and tile roof give an atmosphere 
of permanence. In the rear, the two porches extending almost the 
width of the house remind one of the homes in the deep South. 

In 1786 a brick addition was built to the Brothers' House. 
While helping to dig the cellar, A. Kremser was instantly killed 
by a cave-in of dirt. Because of his red jacket and little red cap 
Kremser was called The Little Red Man. The legend goes that 
for years the ghost of the Little Red Man appeared to many who 
visited the basement of the Brothers' House. He appeared to two 
little girls who had never heard the strange story. Finally, a visit- 
ing minister from the West Indies exorcised this familiar spirit, 
concluding, "Now go to your place. " From that day on the Little 
Red Man was never seen again. 


Brothers' House on Main Street, at Salem Square 

The basement kitchen where the Brothers did their baking in 
an old-fashioned brick bake oven is especially interesting. The 
large hooded fireplace has been closed, but the brick furnace with 
three embedded iron pots, in which the Brothers cooked their 
vegetables, is still used. Beeswax and tallow are now melted in the 
Home from October to December for the candles for the Mora- 
vian Christmas candle service. The room where the candles are 
made was long used for the Infant School. 

For many years the Brothers' Work Shop stood back of the 
Brothers' House. Nineteen trades were carried on in this shop, 
including that of making toys. 

Misses Elizabeth and Margaret Pfohl, who have been living 
back of the Brothers' House on Academy Street since 1921, have 
built a beautiful garden — part of that of the Brothers. The center 
of the lower garden is patterned after the garden of Count Zinzen- 
dorf of Herrnhut, Saxony, who gave refuge to the early Moravians 
when persecuted because of their religion years ago. 

A deodora is in the center of the circular design of boxwoods 
of the garden. The walks are violet-bordered. In the beds are 
hundreds of bulbs, old perennial favorites, roses, and fine shrubs. 
Miss Margaret saved every old bulb from the original garden. 
Ancient shrubs were saved; so, with the old-fashioned favorites 
there is a blending of early days of Salem with some of the newer 
things of the garden of today. There is an atmosphere of peace 
and quiet in this lovely old garden of Salem, which was tended 
by the Brothers over one hundred and fifty years ago. 

Algine Neely 


Doorway of Sisters' House 

Fireplace in the Brothers' House 



are full of references to music. As one reads through them, the 
impression that music was an important and integral part of their 
daily life grows stronger with every page, and almost with every 
entry. In the midst of establishing themselves for the night in the 
wilderness, they would pause for a "Singstunde, " or period of 
worship in song. Lacking a trumpet in their new wilderness home, 
they proceeded to fashion one, with indefatigable labor and cun- 
ning, from the bough of a tree. When new arrivals neared the end 
of their long trek through the wilderness, they were greeted with 
the solemn tones of old chorales echoing fitfully through the 
forest. We read from time to time of the importing of new musical 
instruments from Pennsylvania, brought down along with other 
necessities at the cost of infinite peril and labor. 

The history of music in Salem reaches back to the beginning 
of Protestantism in Europe. The followers of John Hus sang 
hymns, and Hus himself is the author and reputed composer of 
a number of these. The first known Protestant hymnal, dated 
1505, was issued by the Unitas Fratrum. A copy of this incredibly 
precious book, written in the Bohemian language, and containing 
translations of ancient Latin hymns, as well as original hymns in 
the vernacular, is still preserved in Prague. When the Moravians 
emigrated from Bohemia to Saxony in the eighteenth century, 
they became associated with other Protestants on the estate of 
Count Zinzendorf, and were there brought into contact with the 
great stream of chorales which had its inception in the heart and 
brain of Martin Luther. Later as the church spread to England 
and America, other fine tunes were gradually added. 

Unlike the Calvinistic branch of the Reformation, the Moravi- 
ans and Lutherans had no abhorrence of the use of instruments. 
The organ was to them an essential part of the worship of God. 
We read in the church diaries of the importing and building of 
organs during the early years of the Wachovia settlement. The 
Bethabara church possessed the first of these. The second was 


built in 1772 for the Salem church. The third, still in use after 
nearly one-hundred and seventy years of service, was built in 1773 
for the Bethania church. This venerable instrument has three 
stops, with the corresponding three ranks of pipes. It has one 
manual, which in the manner of the eighteenth century harpsi- 
chord, has white sharp keys and black naturals. An extraordi- 
narily gifted cabinet maker by the name of Bulitschek built these 
last two instruments. A fascinating legend has been told concern- 
ing the opening of the Bethania organ. The story goes that in 
Bethania there were two trained and capable organists. Naturally 
both of these men aspired to the honor of playing at the first 
service. Rivalry was keen, and the matter had to be decided by 
the church authorities. It is said that the defeated rival stole into 
the church in the gray dawn of that first Sunday morning, opened 
the organ, and mixed up the pipes so badly that the result at the 
service was a musical chaos. Historians doubt the authenticity 
of this incident, but as a piece of musical folklore, it has persisted 
up to the present day. 

Even in the early days of Salem there were present in the com- 
munity musicians of ability and training. One of the earliest of 
these has made history for Salem and for the entire United States. 
This was the noted Johann Friedrich Peter, who came from 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, to take charge of what would now be 
called the community music of the settlement. Peter was an ac- 
complished composer and while at Salem he wrote the famous 
string quintets dated 1789, which according to Dr. Albert G. Rau, 
of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, are probably "the earliest examples 
for strings, in the formal sonata-form, to have been composed in 
America." From internal evidence it appears that these quintets 
were probably written for a special group of musicians. The cello 
part and the second viola part are considerably easier than the 
other parts, a fact which would indicate that the composer was 
writing down to the level of less accomplished players. Dr. Rau 
thinks it probable that Peter himself played second viola in the 
ensemble, using the score instead of a second part. No second part 
seems to have survived. Peter organized the church music, 
directed the choir, and married Catherine Leinbach, a leading 
soprano in the church. A very precious manuscript in his hand- 


Bernard J. Pfohl has been in charge of 
Salem Band for fifty-two years and has 
beefi a member thereof for sixty-two years 

writing has been handed down through the generations of the 
Leinbach family, and is now ])reserved in the Salem College 
Library. It is a beautifully written copy of Karl Phillipp Emanuel 
Bach's "Geistliche Oden und Lieder, " or Spiritual Odes and 
Songs, set to words by the great German poet, Gellert. 

The Moravians at Salem, as elsewhere, have zealously guarded 
their musical heritage of hymns, anthems, and chorales. The 
chorales are constantly used today, as they have been throughout 
the years, not only for congregational singing, but for many other 
expressions of religious and community life. Every church has 
a band, which plays chorales on feast-days and anniversaries. 
Each group, or "choir" of the church has its own specially sig- 
nificant chorale, which serves as a kind of musical motto for its 
members. A beautiful custom is observed at the announcement 
of the death of a member of the congregation. The band climbs 
to the church tower and plays the special chorale which belongs 
to the "choir" of the deceased brother or sister. This is always 
preceded and followed by the playing of the great "Passion" 
chorale. In the old days when the community was small, the 
listening congregation, at work in the fields or at home, could tell 
from the tune whether the deceased was a married or single 
brother or sister, or one of the younger boys or girls. Chorales are 
also played by the band to announce special celebrations and 
festivals of the church. At the Love Feasts while coffee and buns 
are being served, and during other portions of the service, the 
congregation and choir sing an "Ode," which consists of a num- 
ber of chorales, or verses from chorales, which have a definite 
liturgical significance for the occasion. Congregational singing in 
the Moravian Church has always been full and vigorous. The 
people feel that they are an actual part of the service. The per- 
formance of the various rituals and liturgies, some of which are 
quite elaborate, is therefore no mere product of a trained priest- 
hood and a carefully rehearsed choir. From the early days of the 
simple "Singstunde" to the present highly developed Love Feast 
"Ode," congregational participation has been one of the chief 
features of the service. 

Another distinctive part of the music in Salem is the number 
of traditional anthems which are sung on special church feast days 


Edward Leinbach, composer and organist. 

Airs. Leinbach, soprano soloist in the 

church choir 

and anniversaries. Many of these are the work of Salem com- 
posers. These anthems are loved and reverenced by every member 
of the congregation. No Christmas Love Feast would be complete 
without the singing of "Thou Child Divine" by Schultz. At the 
Home Church in Salem, this anthem is always sung as the pro- 
cession of "dieners" enters on each side of the choir, bearing trays 
of lighted candles for distribution to the people. Other anthems 
and hymns associated with the Christmas celebration are Francis 
F. Hagen's "Morning Star," Massah M. Warner's "Softly the 
Night is Sleeping," and Edward Leinbach's "Christ the Lord, 
the Lord Most Glorious." Every Palm Sunday and every first 
Sunday of Advent, Bishop Christian Gregor's "Hosannah," an 
antiphonal anthem of great power and ryhthmic vigor, is per- 
formed. The method of singing this anthem is traditional: the 
choir sings the leading part, and is answered by the Sunday 
School, massed in the gallery of the church. Another antiphonal 
"Hosannah" sung on Palm Sunday was written by Edward 
Leinbach, one of the most eminent members of a family famous 
as musicians in the community for generations. Hagen's "Lamb 
of God " is also part of the Palm Sunday tradition. At the evening 
service of this Sunday there is a pause in the reading of the 
Passion Week story w^hile the choir sings " Bethany, " an anthem 
by Sorenson, which tells of the peace and happiness which Jesus 
found in the home of Mary, Martha, and Lazarus. 

Music plays an important part in all the reading services which 
take place on successive days of the Passion Week. The minister 
reads the complete Biblical story of the acts of Jesus during the 
last week of His life. At various pauses in the narrative the congre- 
gation sings, like the chorus of a great tragedy, some suitable 
chorale or hymn which comments appropriately on the story. 
The effect of this alternate reading and singing is simple, beauti- 
ful, and at times greatly moving. 

At the early Easter Morning service the church bands play a 
unique role. Long before dawn, groups of musicians travel through 
the city, stopping at important points to play chorales, in order 
to awaken the citizens in time for the service, and prepare their 
minds for the great and solemn festivity which is about to take 
place. During the procession to the grave-yard the bands, located 


in the various sections of the neighborhood, play chorales anti- 
phonally. One hears first the opening phrase of a chorale near at 
hand, then the tune as it is taken up at a distant point by another 
group. At the climax of the service, when bands and congregation 
are finally assembled in the grave-yard, the massed effect of this 
great and simple music, played by several hundred musicians, 
is unforgettable. For many years this work has been ably directed 
by Bernard J. Pfohl, who has given a life-time of devoted service 
to it. 

The list of composers who have lived and worked at Salem is 
too long for complete enumeration here. Besides those already 
mentioned, the following have made distinctive contributions: 
Miss Amy Van Vleck, devoted teacher and accompanist 
at Salem College, who wrote a march for the Centen- 
nial of the College, as well as other compositions 
which have been published; 
George Markgraff, who organized and directed the Salem 
Orchestra during the years when he was head of the 
Department of Music at the College, and who wrote 
marches and other works for orchestra; 
Charles Sanford Skilton, who for three years headed the 
Music Department at Salem College, and who later 
achieved an international reputation as a composer. 
His oratorio, "The Guardian Angel," is founded on 
a local legend, and makes use of traditional Moravian 
tunes to give it historical and local color; 
Louise Siddall, formerly a student at Salem College, who 
composed several published anthems and pieces for 
organ ; 
Charlotte Mathewson Garden, a noted church and concert 
organist, a graduate of Salem College, composer of 
published songs and anthems, editor and arranger of 
much music for organ and choir. 
Salem Academy and College have always played an important 
part, not only in the music of the community, but in the musical 
education of students all over the South. From the earliest days, 
when students worked from hand-copied music down to the 
present time, the two institutions have stood for the best in music 


education. They have attracted to their faculties musicians of 
nation-wide importance, and have worked in constant cooper- 
ation with the church musicians to make Salem and later, 
Winston-Salem, an important and significant center of musical 


Charles G. Vardell, Jr. 

Note — Dr. Charles G. Vardell, Jr. is Dean of the School of Music of Salem College. He is 
a composer of national prominence, numbering among his compositions "Joe Clark Steps 
Out," for orchestra; "The Inimitable Lovers, " a cantata for soloists, chorus and orchestra; 
and the "Carolinian" symphony. 


^ V 1. .. 




Church Street looking North from Salem Square 



on paper, a lot was set aside for a single sisters' house, but the 
building had to take its place in the whole settlement program of 
the community. 

First was to come the single brothers' house. It was completed 
in 1769. Next on the schedule was the community house, begun 
as soon as the other building was completed. 

In this community house the single sisters moved in 1772, 
occupying until their own house could be built, the south end of 
the first floor. Early in April they consecrated their living quarters 
and in May they announced that "strangers must not visit in the 
single sisters' house without permission asked and given and a 
definite time set." 

Permission was given and a time set for a very famous visitor 
in August, and Gov. Josiah Martin inspected and highly approved 
the living arrangements. There were 16 sisters and 6 older girls 
living in the apartment, then, and one of them, Elizabeth Oster- 
lein, kept school for the small girls of the town in one of the com- 
fortable rooms. 

It was this small classroom that soon grew into a boarding 
school and in time into a college, thus giving Salem College the 
distinction of being one of the oldest schools for girls in the 

Before the North Carolina colony was yet sure that freedom 
had been won from England, the sisters of Salem began agitating 
for their own house. For 10 years they had been frequently walk- 
ing south a bit from their quarters to the lot reserved for their 
house, talking and planning, laying out in imagination the gardens 

By mid-July of 1782, they had progressed sufficiently in their 
planning to know that the building would cost at least $5,000.00. 

They were advised to state to the church authorities in a formal 
letter that they wanted to build their house, and ask if collections 


Sisters' House, where formerly lived Mora- 
vian Single Sisters and Older Girls — 
South Church Street 

for it might be taken in Europe, especially amcjng the Moravian 
single sisters there. 

They were by no means without their own opportunities for 
making money. Already they had accumulated by handwork, ser- 
vice and thrift nearly half the required amount. They were always 
busy — shearing sheep, drying apples and peaches, washing, sew- 
ing, cooking, and canning, helping in the community with nursing. 
Making kid gloves, they found was a profitable occupation, and 
the}' pursued this occupation diligently. 

The Salem congregation wholly favored the building of the 
sisters' house. A building committee was appointed, plans were 
drawn, the lot was staked off, and two workmen were busy 
throughout the summer of 1783 making the bricks that would be 

Present-day visitors often marvel at the perfection of con- 
struction of the old buildings of Salem, erected as they were with- 
out the professional experience and equipment of our day. 

The records of the building of the sisters' house give some 
insight into the working methods of earlier-day builders. The 
curator of Salem, for example, was instructed to plan the sisters' 
house, but he was to submit his drawings to everyone in the com- 
munity who "understood the erection of houses," so any errors 
might be corrected before work was started. 

For days, the builders argued as to the advisability of making 
the long beams for the building of poplar. Fortunately for pos- 
terity, the sturdier oak timber was ordered for beams and rafters, 
with the arrangement that poplar might be used for masons' laths 
and cross-beams. 

By October of 1783 the lumber for the sisters' house was being 
piled by permission in Salem Square in front of the excavation for 
the deep cellars — sweetgum saw logs, cut from the lot behind the 
mill, and scaffolding boards an inch and one quarter thick. 

While some of the workmen laid the heavy rock foundations for 
the building, others carted the surplus dirt over to Main street 
where it was used for road improvement. 

Even the shingles were ready to go on the roof — colorful clay 
shingles, 21 inches long, made by Moses Martin and bought for 
22 shillings per thousand. 


Around the well-built cellars of the proposed sisters' house all 
the component parts of the building lay carefully arranged. 

But not a single brick nor oak beam nor poplar cross-beam nor 
21-inch shingle collected for the Salem sisters' house ever went 
into the beautiful old building that still stands with a bronze 
marker near its arched front door on South Church Street. 

In the dark of a winter's night the cry, "fire," spread through 
Salem. The frame-constructed Tavern was in flames, and Land- 
lord Jacob Meyer did well to escape with his family and a few 
guests. In a few hours, the Tavern was a fire-blackened ruin, and 
Salem was without any facilities for taking care of guests. 

The single sisters were crowded but at least adequately housed 
in the community building. They could manage for another year 
or so if necessary. So the materials for the sisters' house went to 
build the Tavern that was completed in 1784, and that still stands 
sturdily against the ravages of time on South Main street. 

Early the following spring, on March 31, the corner stone for 
the single sisters' house was laid, with the whole congregation 
rejoicing that the sisters were at last to have their building, and 
the trombone choir furnishing joyful music. 

The building that we now know as the sisters' house, a part of 
the Salem College plant, was completed in the spring of 1786. 

Long a part of the school that grew from the first single sisters' 
apartment, the old building has through the long years of its use, 
always been "home" for some of the single sisters of Salem. 

Nettie Allen Thomas 




had only about seventy-seven adult residents. They were consci- 
entious objectors to bearing arms, and were granted exemption; 
however, they willingly paid a three-fold tax in lieu of military 
service. The Moravians believed that, as citizens of North Caro- 
lina, they owed allegiance to rulers duly elected by the people, and 
with exception to serving in the army, they did all in their power 
to comply with requests for aid to the cause of liberty. 

The story of the ride of young Jesse Franklin was told to a news- 
paper man years ago by the late Hon. C. B. Watson, who was 
exceptionally well versed in the traditional and intimate history 
of this section. 

This is the story: 

During the Revolutionary War, Ben Cleveland was Colonel 
of the militia in Wilkes county. He was one of the heroes of King's 
Mountain. He was engaged, too, in fighting the Indians and 
Tories at difTerent times. 

Gen. Greene retreated through North Carolina, followed by 
Lord Cornwallis. While crossing the line, Cireene made up his 
mind to come back into North Carolina and meet Cornwallis and 
fight him. He sent a messenger to Wilkesboro to Col. Cleveland, 
whose home was near Wilkesboro, to tell him what day he wanted 
Cleveland to meet him at the old Troublesome Iron Works, out 
from Guilford courthouse, where Greene was going to camp while 
mustering militia. 

The day before Cleveland received the message from Gen. 
Greene, he received a message telling him that the Indians were 
preparing for a raid into North Carolina, and he sent a portion of 
his regiment to meet them. 

Jesse Franklin was a young man, and a nephew of Col. Cleve- 
land. The next morning, Cleveland dispatched Franklin to Gen. 
Greene to tell him about the Indian raid, and that while he 
couldn't send his entire force, he would bring his available troops 
to aid him. 


Young Franklin was to start on his ride direct to Salem, a dis- 
tance of 75 miles. Col. Cleveland told him to go to the home of 
Mr. Bagge, then a very wealthy German living in Salem. Frank- 
lin was to arrive in Salem that night. He was to go into the home 
of Bagge the back way, and make known to him that he was a 
courier to Gen. Greene from Col. Cleveland. Franklin was told 
that Bagge was a very careful man, but that he would help him. 

Young Franklin arrived at the home of Bagge early in the night, 
hitched his horse in a shed at the rear of the house, and knocked 
at a door at the rear. Mr. Bagge came to the door, candle in hand, 
and asked him what he wanted. Franklin told him that he was 
bearing a dispatch to Gen. Greene from Col. Cleveland, and asked 
him to give him something to eat and lend him a fresh horse. 

Bagge replied: "Young man, I can do neither," but turning, 
he showed him a little dining room, placed the candle on the table 
and said: "Now look in the safe and you w^ill find plenty of cold 
victuals. If you help yourself, I can't help it." He then handed 
Franklin the key to the stable and said: "If, tomorrow morning, 
I find your jaded horse in the stable and my horse gone, I can't 
help it." 

Franklin mounted the horse and the next morning as the sun 
rose, he delivered Col. Cleveland's message to Gen. Greene at the 
old Troublesome Iron Works, a forty-mile night's ride. 

Franklin remained for the battle of Guilford Courthouse. Later, 
he was Governor of North Carolina and still later, a United States 
Senator. He was also honored in other ways. 

According to priceless records these were troublous times for 
the Salem town, when the quiet, peace-loving village was overrun 
from time to time with soldiers, marauders and rioters, demanding 
food and entertainment. Brother Grafif, the pastor, and Brother 
Bagge, the merchant, were called upon to settle many a momen- 
tous question. 

Four kinds of paper money were in circulation at that time, to 
add to the confusion, and people came to Salem to spend it, where 
things were still to be had. Instead of taking change, they would 
often ask for thread, needles, tape, sugar, or other commodities; 
if at the tavern, they would demand a dram in place of change! 
Often the store, the pottery and the tannery enjoyed a superfluity 


of patronage, and the pottery especially would be entirely sold 
out. Sometimes the tavern was quite overrun and extra help had 
to be called in. 

Even officers went into the store and workshops, taking what 
they wanted, and charging it to the public account. A certificate 
was, however, given the Brethren, and 2000 pounds of meat and 
meal to feed 2000 men for eight days ordered from here and two 
neighboring settlements. It was astonishing what amounts of sup- 
plies were furnished by the handful of villagers here; fresh pork, 
beef, barrels, leather, "flower" for bread, large size "stockens," 
salt, etc. Sometimes they received payment in depreciated money; 
sometimes not at all. 

Once so many boisterous strangers were in town the store- 
keeper and the tavern manager were unable to attend the Easter 
lovefeast ! 


Academy Street facing the Square 

Salem College Office, formerly Inspector's 
House, built in 1810 



activities of the growing young community of Salem during the 
year 1772, marks the first concrete beginning of two institutions 
which were destined to become outstanding examples of edu- 
cational progress in North Carolina. 

The entry states, very briefly: "The young people in the choir 
houses should be given practice in writing and arithmetic so that 
they might not forget what they have already learned." 

This conviction of the church fathers that education should be 
provided for the children of the community led to the establish- 
ment, more than 160 years ago, of a day school for the little girls 
and a separate day school for the small boys of Salem. 

The girls' day school grew with the years from small classes 
which met at the Congregation House and later at the Sisters' 
House into present-day Salem Academy and Salem College, The 
day school for boys became the Salem Boys' School, an insti- 
tution which, over the span of more than a century, served with 
distinction in supplying the educational needs of the youth of 
this city. 

First classes for the small boys were begun during the spring of 
1772 in the home of Christian Triebel, master carpenter. Triebel 
was a bachelor who owned his own house and he donated the 
rooms which he did not need for use as schoolrooms. 

The first three pupils to attend classes were Charles and Benja- 
min Bagge and small Samuel Meyer, the tavern-keeper's son. It 
was thought advisable to have young Samuel's place of residence 
removed from the tavern; and he began to sleep at the Triebel 
house, thus becoming the first resident pupil, although he con- 
tinued to eat his meals with his family. 

Tiny lads of kindergarten age were sent to school only for an 
hour or two each day, but as they grew older they were required 
to spend longer hours in the classroom. 

In 1773, the instruction of the boys was extended to include the 
schooling of boys of 12 or 14 years of age and older, who were serv- 


iiig their apprenticeships as craftsmen and Hving in the Brothers' 
House. In that year night "extension" classes were begun at the 
Brothers' House under the supervision of Rev. Mr. Tiersch, the 
first preacher in the community. 

These night classes were conducted in close connection with 
the classes in the Triebel house, the "graduates" of the latter 
automatically attending the Brothers' House classes as they be- 
came of apprentice age. 

The classes continued unbroken throughout the Revolutionary 
War, and attendance grew rapidly. Students too young to live at 
the Brothers' House as apprentices lived at their homes, and those 
from nearby rural communities boarded in Salem homes during 
the school term. 

Triebel finally gave up his home entirely to make room for the 
expanding school, and moved into another house in the neighbor- 
hood. In 1782, three teachers were on duty: Joseph Dixon, young 
apprentice surgeon; Frederich Peter, minister and musician; and 
Christian Stauber, whose particular job was to instruct the small 
boys from the country and those who had not learned to write. 

In 1791 the citizens of Salem sent to Europe for a young man 
to take charge of the expanding institution. He was Thomas Pfohl, 
who proved to be an excellent administrator and teacher. By 1794 
the school had enlarged so much that the Triebel house was no 
longer of sufficient size to accommodate it, and a new building was 

This new three-story structure on Academy Street, now housing 
the museum of the Wachovia Historical Society, was designed as 
a residence school. Across from the cellar were built a dining room 
and a kitchen, with a huge hearth and Dutch oven. The second 
floor was devoted largely to classrooms, and the third floor was 
built to serve as a dormitory. 

Though the school made excellent progress as a day school, it 
never was an outstanding success as a boarding school. Spasmodic 
attempts in the 1790's and later in the 1820's to convert it into 
such an institution met with little success. One or two teachers 
lived in the building and a few of the town boys slept there for 
a time, but the great majority of the students continued either 
to live at home, or to board with friends in town, if they came 
from the rural sections. 


Salem Boys' School built in 1794, is now a unit of the Wachovia 
Museum, Salem. Square 

An idea of the daily school routine may be had from reading a 
diary of one of the teachers about 1830. The curriculum at that 
time seems to have been surprisingly modern in its organization, 
with "supervised activities" and a regular recreation period in- 
cluded. The smaller boys were required to attend classes all morn- 
ing, but every afternoon when the weather permitted they were 
taken on long walks, or allowed to swim in the creek or play ball 
in the meadow, under the watchful eye of their teacher. An attempt 
was made to have each afternoon's program different from that of 
the preceding day, insofar as the limited recreational facilites of 
the community allowed. 

As the years passed, the Boys' School increased in size and in 
value to the community. Classes met in the building erected in 
1794 for 103 years. 

In 1896, a new building was erected for the school on the corner 
of Bank and Church Streets. It is now the Moravian Church 

The old building was converted almost immediately into a 
museum, and as such it continues to serve the city today. 

Kate Urquhart 


Bake Oven in Boys' School 
typical of the period 




Kitchen utensils grouped around fireplace in Kitchen 
of Boys' School — now Museum 

The Salem room in the Museum of the 
Wachovia Historical Society. The chande- 
lier once did duty in the church. 



historical significance till the time of the War Between the States. 
At that time it was the home of Mayor Joshua Boner and became 
the headquarters of General Palmer, when the Federal troops 
occupied the town. 

On April 10th, 1865, an army entered the adjacent village of 
Winston; Salem's Mayor Boner and Rev. Robert de Schweinitz, 
principal of Salem Female Academy, rode to meet the invaders 
and surrendered the town. Three thousand troops encamped along 
Salem Creek. 

The frightened inhabitants naturally hid their jewelry, silver 
and sundry valuables including horses and other livestock. One 
young mother dressed her baby in five little frocks and sat holding 
him on the stair steps to await the coming of the Yankees! Those 
were hard times indeed, when salt was priced at twenty dollars 
per sack; corn sold for ten dollars per bushel and ordinary country- 
bacon brought three dollars per pound. 

Long widths of cotton cloth were stretched on fences here and 
there, having been made waterproof with paint to protect the 
confederate soldiers from the weather. 

Salem sent two army bands to the front; one with the Twenty- 
First Regiment and the other with the Twenty-Sixth. The latter 
band saw service at Gettysburg, and in Salem's Hall of History 
are some of the instruments played by the "boys" during the war. 
Here, too, is a music book which was in a knapsack used for a 
pillow, when a bullet struck and pierced the book. 

Though this was before the Red Cross was organized, a number 
of Salem's women volunteered for nursing duty in hospitals. 
Among them were Mrs. Eliza Kremer, Misses Lizetta Stewart, 
Leanna Schaub, Laura Vogler and Margaret Clewell. Under what 
difficulties and handicaps they must have served, with churches, 
school houses and even barns the only available places for sick 
and wounded soldiers. 



Home of Salem's Mayor, which became 

headquarters of Gen. Palmer when Federal 

troops occupied the town; originally the 

Kuschke House 



one of the first group of Moravian settlers who journeyed to this 
region from Pennsylvania in 1753. 

It was leased to the Single Brethren of Salem congregation 
from 1795 to 1800 and then to Christopher Vogler, in whose 
family it remained until 1875. In this year it was first deeded to 
J. R. and W. T. Vogler, executors of the estate of Nathaniel 
Vogler, who transferred title to the property to A. S. Jones, the 
last resident of the Chimney House who engaged in farming 
operations in the adjacent fields. 

It came into the possession of the present owner, Mrs. Thomas 
W. Davis, in 1913. 


This interesting interior is in the Chimney House situated 
at iij Walnut Street 


There's a quaint old house in Salem, 
Too modest to face the street, 
Which seems to call o'er its shoulder, 
As memory stays my feet: 

"Come in — and remember!" 

'Twas builded of logs, to begin with. 
Then covered with clapboards neat. 
And the old stone steps worn deeply 
Are kind to returning feet. 
I remember. 

So well each door and window. 
The corner where grandfather sat 
In the old oak chair, with his Bible 
Outspread on his knee. Oh, that 
Is sweet to remember! 

And the shelf with the cedar bucket 
Of well water, clear and cold, 
And the gourd that hung just by it; 
The grandfather clock that told 
Glad hours to remember. 

The scarred old corner cupboard, 
Its shelves with paper lined. 
And a custard-pie half-hidden 
F'or a hungry child to find — 
And remember. 

The spinning wheel in the attic, 
Hoopskirts and bustles we wore 
When we played at being ladies 
On rainy days — and more — 
I remember. 

But the heart of the house was the chimney. 
Which twisted and bulged and bent. 
And its cavernous mouth, wide-open 
Held logs with the sweet wood-scent 
I remember. 

And somehow, 'twas strangely fashioned. 
So that each and every room 
Had a hearth and fire to banish 
The sullen cold and gloom. 
I remember 

How, curled on the rug of sheepskin, 
I gazed at the dancing flame. 
And felt the pulsing heart-beats 
Of a house which deserved a name 
To remember. 

Now "Old Chimney House" they call it. 
And if it could speak, well it might 
Say: "The heart of the house is the chimney. 
Keep love and the flame burning bright; 
Oh — remember! " 

Used by Permission of Ruth Crist Blackwell 




town, it was their intention to make it their permanent home. 
Therefore, they began at once to surround themselves with such 
conveniences as they had enjoyed in their homelands. Businesses 
at first were largely centered around the Brothers' House, in which 
the single men of the community lived. After the boys and un- 
married men went to live in the Brothers' House, craftsmen took 
them as apprentices in their shops and taught them the various 
trades. In order to manage their industries and take care of all 
their business relations, the brothers founded the Single Breth- 
ren's Diacony, which was generally supervised by the governing 
board of the church. 

The Congregational Diacony, the organization that managed 
the financial afTairs of the church, also operated businesses, as 
well as collecting water bills and checking up on the debtors of the 
community store. Some individuals, however, conducted their 
own shops, independent of both Diaconies. 

The Sisters' House was operated on a basis similar to that of 
the Brothers' House. Young girls went to live at the Sisters' House 
in order to learn cooking, cleaning, sewing, weaving, knitting, 
crocheting, and gardening. They also conducted a tailoring estab- 
lishment to make men's clothes and to stitch soft buckskin gloves, 
which were favorites among the young brethern. 

For many years the Single Brethern operated farms in order to 
supply the community with dairy products as the people were not 
allowed to keep cows in town. 

The making of cigars and snuff was begun in Salem as early as 
1774, and was taken over in 1806 by the Single Brethren's Diacony. 

In connection with the Brothers' House, a bakery was operated 
to provide bread and cakes. While Cornwallis' army was in Salem, 
the soldiers discovered the bakery and it was soon full of English- 
men. One officer, wishing to enjoy his refreshment to the full, 
removed his sword and placed it on the counter. Unseen by the 
Britisher, a little boy, evidently apprenticed to the baker, slipped 


the weapon under the counter. The customer seemed so satisfied 
with the pastries, that when he left, he forgot his sword. Repri- 
manded for his behavior, the youngster repHed, "Well, they are 
our enemies and we want to do all we can to harm them!" 

To sharpen sickles used in reaping, the brethren established a 
mill. Soon they began to make sickles, and before long gun- 
smithing, lock-smithing, and clock-repairing were somehow mixed 
up in this general manufactory. One clock-repairer, Mr. Lewis 
Eberhardt, added greatly to the Home Moravian Church clock 
by making it strike the quarter hours. In 1788 the gunsmithy was 
taken over by Christopher Vogler, w-ho won an outstanding repu- 
tation for the "Salem Vogler guns." All the gun barrels were 
wrought from common bar iron, ground into proper shape on a 
large grindstone, and then bored and rifled out in his shop. 

Hatmaking and shoemaking were also important in early Salem. 
The shoes were very plain and simple; and the minute there was 
a trend toward more attractive ones, the governing boards pro- 
tested. It was permissible for a man to wear silk knee breeches and 
white cotton stockings; but if he wore black velvet breeches, 
white silk stockings, and fine leather shoes, his dress was far too 
elaborate for his station. Big shaggy hats — those with turned 
down brims, and those trimmed with ribbons and buckles were 
considered entirely too fine. Should a man wear a sleeveless vest 
and a fine pleated shirt, he was looked upon as an erring brother. 
The only criticism of women's clothes was the discouragement of 
high-heeled shoes! 

Metal work was very prominent. Pewter-making was common 
in the early days when the pewter ware was made by hammering 
or molding the metal. Of much greater importance, however, was 
the work of the silversmiths, outstanding among whom were John 
Vogler and Traugott Leinbach. Many of the iron railings of the 
old Salem buildings were made in the local iron works. Nails, how- 
ever, had to be secured elsewhere, for when the Sisters' House 
was planned, the brothers counted the number of nails needed and 
ordered them by the dozen. Water pipes were bored out of pine 
logs, resistant to decay. 

One of the most useful of businesses was the brick and tile- 
making industry, which supplied all the brick and tile used in 


i — 


^ 11 


1 ^^ 



















\ \ 


— j__i 












Other Industries Added Later 

1. Blacksmith (George Schmidt) 

2. Potter (Gottfried Aust) 

3. Saddler (Charles Holder) 

4. Preacher (Fritz) 

5. Doctor (Bonn) 

6. The Two-Story House 

7. Hatter (John Reiz) 

8. Tobacconist (Micksch) 

9. Carpenter (Triebel) 

10. Single Brethren's House 

11. The "Gemein Haus" 

(Community Meeting House) 

12. Single Sisters' House 

13. Tyco Nissen's House 

14. Community Store 

15. Preacher (Heinzemann) 

16. Salem Tavern 

17. Tannery 

18. Brewery 

Salem buildings. In addition to the usual output of a pottery — 
plates, bowls, vases, pots, and clay pipes — the potter also made 
elaborate tile stoves, according to the designs brought over from 
Europe. The first Salem potter, Gottfried Aust, opened his shop 
in 1772. As his sign, he made a large platter with his name and the 
date 1772 grooved into the clay on the outer rim. In the center 
was a floral design. Experts in the pottery business have declared 
this to be a most exceptional piece of work, for the potter had to 
have the heat just at the correct intensity in order to glaze the 
grooves, yet to keep the center colors from running. 

Space prohibits going into details concerning such industries as 
the tannery, brewery, cotton mill, flour mill, water works, black- 
smithy, and others; they are none the less important and should 
not be overlooked. 

Perhaps the most popular business was the Community Store, 
which handled all sorts of goods. Once the young boy, Julius A. 
Leinbach, who was apprenticed to the store-keeper, was in the 
basement filling a jug with molasses by letting it run from a large 
cask into a smaller container. During the procedure he was called 
away. Sometime later he realized that the molasses must still be 
running. Hurrying back, he found a thick layer of molasses on the 
dirt floor of the cellar. Very carefully he scooped up the part on 
the top, putting it back into the container. No one ever discovered 
the catastrophe, and nobody seems to have complained about 
impure molasses. 

Candle-making, begun in 1795, is one of the primitive crafts 
still carried on. By the same method used in the olden days, ten 
thousand beeswax candles are made for the Moravian Christmas 
Lovefeasts each year. 

Over a century and a half has passed since the founding of this 
industrious community. The early Salem craftsmen wTought well. 
Many samples of their work may be seen in the Wachovia Mu- 
seum; but more important, much of it is still in use. The iron 
railings, the locks, hinges, and keys, the tile roofs of the Sisters' 
House and the Museum, for example — even the very buildings 
themselves, still remain as objects of interest, usefulness, and 
beauty — because these early workers took pride in doing their 
work well. 

Margaret Leinbach. 


Salem boasts a Community Store today, facing the old Square, 

as of yore. Various commodities are offered the public. While 

molasses may not be had here, the fascinating little Christmas 

cakes, made of molasses, are a popular feature 



Reichs, the tin and coppersmiths of the community, occupied the 
modest Httle house at the northeast corner of South Main and 
Blum Streets, which had been built in 1792-3 by one Johann 
George Ebert, who left Salem in the fall of 1796. 

Christopher Reich was the second occupant and the third owner 
of this house. Gottlieb Schober had bought the house from Ebert 
in 1796 and had arranged that Reich should live there and carry 
on his trade. Reich purchased from Schober in 1801. 

Jacob Reich followed his father in occupying the house and in 
conducting the business and, in 1859, became the first individual 
to own the land on which the house is located, taking a deed from 
the Moravian church. 

While Jacob still carried on his trade in Salem, his son, William 
A. (Gus), opened a tin and coppersmith business in Mt. Airy. 
Being there at the time of the death of the Siamese twins, Gus was 
called upon to make a tin cofifin in which to "solder them up" for 
shipment to Philadelphia physicians for post-mortem examina- 
tion. Gus considered this one of the outstanding events of his life. 

The Reichs were known as excellent workmen in their line and 
their work has been commented upon by authorities. "Prof." 
Gus Reich, who lived in the house until 1897, established a local 
reputation as a magician and was known as "the wizard of the 
Blue Ridge." Several articles belonging to the Reichs are pre- 
served in the Wachovia Museum. 

The clapboard house is built of logs, chinked in with mud 
and straw. It contains most of the original mantels, floors, doors, 
hinges, locks and window panes. It is characteristic of the simple 
house of the Salem tradesmen. 

On May 17, 1792, the minutes of the Aufseher Collegium record : 
"Ebert is told that he must make the foundation wall and the 
upper structure of his house correspond with the other two houses 
on the same block to which he agrees. He has already cut the logs 
of the proposed size and is allowed to proceed. " Later, Ebert 


Rear Hall of Reich House, showing quaint 

Dutch door; now the home of Mr. and Mrs. 

W. K. Hovt 

Room of Reich House on South Main Street 



this same venerable sanctuary, though now there are a number of 
other churches of that denomination in town. 

The membership at that time numbered just one hundred and 
fifty, so it was a brave undertaking and a worthy one, when, in 
June, 1798, the corner-stone was laid. The architecttire is true 
continental colonial, emphasizing simplicity, strength, heavy 
walls, and durable construction. The appentice or hood over each 
door is unique, and characteristic of these early builders, being 
seen in several of the other original structures. The immense stone 
foundations, the walls three feet thick, the great beams of hand- 
hewn oak, and the fine brick made in an adjacent meadow, all 
speak of a far-seeing, conscientious brotherhood, whose accom- 
plishment stands in fine preservation today, after well over a 
hundred years of constant use. 

The church bell and the town clock antedate the church itself, 
having first been placed in a tower on the square, the bell being 
rung every day at noon for the dinner hour. It was cast in Penn- 
sylvania in 1771, and the story goes that its silvery tone is due to 
molten silver dollars that the brethren contributed to its makeup. 
The clock was ordered from Europe and was striking the hours in 
1790, when the night watchman made his rounds, blowing his 
conch shell, and calling that all was well. 

The weather vane atop the belfry is interesting. It was made in 
Pennsylvania also. The figures in the tail of the weather vane are 
thirteen inches across. The gilt ball is seven feet, five inches in 
circumference, and the star is twelve inches wide. 

The heavy handrails at the front steps, of non-rusting Norway 
iron, were made and presented by a member, Christopher Vogler. 

The first lighting system in the church consisted of five chande- 
liers holding candles. These antique devices may be seen today 
in the Museum near by. Kerosene lamps were an improvement 
that followed the candles, and when gas lights were installed, the 


church was quite up to date. Now, of course, the lighting is effected 
by indirect electric chandeliers. 

The old church has seen many notable gatherings, when it has 
been taxed to an overflow of some nine hundred. Its interior has 
been renovated several times, though outside it retains its origi- 
nal beautiful simplicity, and the sweet old bell still calls to prayer, 
as it did when the first president of the United States worshipped 
with the brethren. 


The Home Moravian Church, in continuous 
use for well-nigh a century and a half 



the whole facade of college buildings comes into view. 

Unprecedented is the fact that here is a school for young women 
which has not once closed its doors since the year 1772. Here 
education for girls has gone on steadily from the establishment 
of Salem Female Academy into the eighteenth century, through 
the nineteenth century, up to the present time when Salem Acade- 
my is an accredited preparatory school and Salem College a full- 
fledged and important woman's college in the South. 

Keeping the beauty and simplicity of the old architecture, 
many new buildings have been added to the campus of fifty-six 
acres during the years. President Howard Rondthaler, now in 
ofifice, counts twenty-one buildings on the campus. One has only 
to enter one of the gate-ways in the solid phalanx of buildings 
fronting the Square to find himself surrounded by cloistered 
beauty: Huge trees more than a century old, redolent boxwoods, 
ancient fountains planted with fern, the woodsy "Pleasure 
Grounds" with the little brook and forget-me-nots still growing 
by the big rock, brick walks, flowering shrubs, and finally the old 
meadows converted into a modern hockey field, archery grounds 
and tennis courts, with a large gymnasium just under the hill. 

In the east campus and beautifully curving the hill stand the 
three new Academy buildings, a complete preparatory school 
plant built in the lines of ancient architecture even to the graceful 
spire, but very modern within. 

One sees on Salem Square, facing north, the Salem College 
Library. Within this building are treasures untold, which to the 
interested stranger can open up volumes of history, folk lore, 
traditions and customs which are potent in the background of this 
venerable college and which lend their fragrance and fabric to the 
modern and up-to-the-minute atmosphere of the institution. 

Facing south on Salem Square stands the low quaint Office 
Building of the college built in 1811 as a combination house of 
administrative offices and residence for the head of the school. In 


1 IliT T'lMWWMfMMM— — I 

Main Hall — iialeni College 

this house, which has had its interior recently restored most 
charmingly, one will find the old safe which for ninety years has 
stood in the treasurer's ofifice. During the war between the states 
it was crammed with Confederate bills of all denominations. For 
Salem has never closed its doors and in that time of peril in the 
South, parents sent their girls to Salem Female Academy for safe 
living away from the anxious dangers of the plantations. 

Dr. Robert de Schweinitz was the president during those fateful 
years and carried a heavy responsibility. To this day one can see 
in the old safe some of the paper money which became worthless 
at the end of the war. 

One day a wagon carrying a full load of staples drove around 
Salem Square and entirely unannounced stopped at the door of 
the ofifice building. It was at the time when Dr. de Schweinitz' 
store of food for the school and the precious daughters of the 
South was running low. It was a godsend — a miracle — an answer 
to prayers ! One of the father-planters had feared just such a short- 
age and through the Carolinas had sent his wagon wending its way 
from plantation to plantation gathering what he could for the 
girls at Salem. Then came the long trek to Salem where beans, 
potatoes, side-meat, and flour were received as though they had 
been the rarest of jewels. 

Down under the ofifice building are arched cellars paved with 
great paving stones. Back in the darkest vaulted room one can 
see the big loose stone under which the money and heirlooms of 
the school were hidden when the Yankee troops finally did come 
through peacef^ul Salem town. 

Main Hall with its tall white Doric columns was built in 1854 
and was dreamed of and designed by Francis Fries who, as with 
all great designers, was far ahead of his time. Along the brick 
entry which runs the length of the basement of this building, Dr. 
de Schweinitz, when he heard that the troops were coming, had 
his one hired man lead two horses and hide them in a deep cellar 
under the portico of Main Hall. These two animals were abso- 
lutely essential to the running of the school farm. Today one looks 
into that cellar with bated breath, almost fearing that the horses 
will neigh and betray their whereabouts. 


Salem College campus, showing box hedge 
and ancient trees 

The appearance of hostile troops was so serious that word went 
out to the school girls in no uncertain terms that everyone must 
remain indoors with all shutters closed tight. 

The Yankee troops with Col. Stoneman at their head rode down 
quiet Church Street and Dr. de Schweinitz went out anxiously 
to confront them with fear in his heart for his precious charges. 
Just at that moment a spirited girl from Alabama, leaned far out 
of the third floor corner window of Main Hall waving a Confeder- 
ate flag defiantly in the face of the advancing soldiers. Also at 
that moment when something dire might have happened, Col. 
Stoneman and Dr. de Schweinitz recognized one another. They 
had been school boys together in a Moravian school in Penn- 
sylvania! Stoneman dismounted and the two men dramatically 
clasped each other. The dangerous moment for old Salem Acade- 
my and Salem town was over. Stoneman promised absolute safety 
for the school and the town and placed his sentries in front of 
Main Hall. The young lady from Alabama was thoroughly 
rebuked for it was not her fault that something devastating did 
not happen to her school and to her schoolmates. 

Facing west on Salem Square is the Moravian Sisters' House 
built in 1785 and delightfully quaint from its original mossy tile 
roof to its extra wide scrubbed floor boards. This house was built 
by the sisters themselves and was the busy centre for all the 
womanly industries and crafts of the time The younger women 
of the community entered here to learn from the experienced sis- 
ters, fine needle work, cooking, baking and fine laundering. In 
fact it was a sort of home economics house. Salem College now 
uses this house as a dormitory. 

Through the long period of years Salem has had twelve presi- 
dents. The blending of the ancient and the new and the establish- 
ment of a ver}' modern preparatory school and a standard college 
of arts and sciences in which the atmosphere of historic back- 
ground and tradition is subtly present, is and will be always the 
inherited and rewarding task of its administrators. 

Katherine B. Rondthaler 



A bank where the periwinkle grows 

Campus — Salem College 


Guest room, showing beds used in Salem 
Female Academy in early igth Century. 



stands staunch and strong today, even though following the earth- 
quake of 1886 it had to be reinforced with anchor irons. Its builder, 
Dr. Samuel Benjamin Vierling of Silesia, arrived in Salem in 1790, 
to become the community physician, having won his degree in 

In 1800, Dr. Vierling applied to the Brethren for permission to 
build a home. The Brethren felt that his plans were rather pre- 
tentious, but finally allowed him to begin the structure after 
having satisfied themselves that he could finance it. So the house 
was erected in that year and immediately became an important 
center in the life of the small community. Five of his children by 
his second marriage were born in the house. 

Dr. Vierling died on November 15, 1817, at the age of 52, leav- 
ing his widow with the responsibility of a large family. In 1818, 
she sold the house to the church. It then became the Land Office 
and residence of the Proprietors who held title to the land belong- 
ing to the Unity of Brethren. These Proprietors were known as 
"Administrators," hence its name "Administration House." For 
many years various Administrators occupied the house, all of 
whom were conspicious in the early development of the com- 

Rev. Lewis David de Schweinitz, Administrator, was one of 
these. He had two famous sons, Emil, the future Bishop, and 
Robert William, seventh principal of Salem Academy. 

Charles F. Kluge, Administrator, occupied the house from 1844- 
1853. It was in this house on May 12, 1849, that Kluge prepared 
the deed for 51 acres of land, purchased at five dollars per acre 
from the Moravians, for the site of the town of Winston, and the 
county courthouse. 

The last Administrator was Bishop Emil A. de Schweinitz, who 
occupied the house from 1853-1877. After Bishop de Schweinitz's 
retirement, the Administration Office then assumed the name 
"Treasurer of The Moravian Church in America, Southern Prov- 


The Vierling or Administration House, built in 1800 

ince. " The various Treasurers who were successors of Bishop de 
Schweinitz did not live in the house until in 1914, Rev. Ernest 
Hall Stockton was appointed Treasurer and, with his family of 
five daughters and one son, moved into the house on October 2, 
1914. He died May 16, 1935, and his only son, Edwin L. Stockton, 
was appointed Treasurer, and continues to occupy the house. 
Thus after a lapse of thirty years, the house again became the 
home of those in charge of the Land Ofifice. 

It is interesting to note that Dr. Vierling is the fourth great 
grandfather of the present occupant, and the fifth great grand- 
father of the occupant's two children, thus creating a direct con- 
nection with the builder of the house of almost a century and a 
half ago. 

It is said that this was the first brick residence erected in Salem. 
Built the same year as the Home Church, it is similar in the mas- 
sive construction of the walls and roof. The house is supported by 
a foundation of field stone over five feet in thickness. The base- 
ment constructed of massive walls gives the aspect of a dungeon. 
The first and second stories are alike in plan and construction. 
On each floor there are four large rooms and a hall. The doors are 
wide, and only six feet in height, retaining the original locks and 
hinges. The wide floor boards are deeply worn. The stairw^ay has 
a slender, graceful hand rail. There are two garrets, and here one 
may see the long rafters, four inches square, hewn from single 
trees. The rafters are skillfully mortised together so that the joints 
can hardly be seen. Here and there, however, one may see a black- 
smith's nail. The huge chimneys as they pass through the two 
garrets, lean toward the west, giving the impression that they are 
about to collapse. 

The exterior walls of large dark red bricks, made locally, pre- 
sent a pleasing appearance, knitted together in a Flemish Bond 
arrangement. The bricks show few signs of deterioration. The 
narrow windows have small panes, and the sashes are of unequal 
size, the upper being one third larger than the lower. The eyelash 
arches over the windows are indicative of the early period. Ivy, 
slowly creeping up the walls of the house, greatly enhances its 

The garden in the rear of the house descends by a succession of 


terraces to the ravine on the east. There is no doubt that in this 
beautiful spot Doctor VierUng grew herbs for his apothecary shop 
which was located in the house. 

Long since removed was a barn in the rear of the house where 
the Doctor and the other early occupants kept their horses. A 
large pile of cord wood leaned against the barn, providing fuel for 
the outdoor Dutch oven, and for the large fire places in the house. 
An intriguing story is related of Dr. Vierling's youngest daughter, 
Eliza. One day she was playing near the woodpile and suddenly 
burst into the house, announcing to her mother that there was an 
angel on the woodpile. Hurriedly accompanying the little girl to 
see what could be meant by this statement, Mrs. Vierling was 
astonished to see the pile of wood tumble down, just as she reached 
the back door. Could little Eliza have really seen her guardian 

The Vierling house has stood now for almost a century and a 
half on its high elevation like a "guardian angel, " silently watch- 
ing the years go by and witnessing the growth of a small village 
to a large City. What a story we would hear if the four walls could 
but speak! Surely we would hear the words spoken in the charac- 
ter of the man who built it — "Let him who builds, build well." 

Edwin L. Stockton 




times past at the cakes and candies displayed in Winkler's Bakery 
— or hurried faster along Main street as the fragrant aroma of 
baking tempted him to stop. And many a Salem lass — though 
reducing had not yet become the fad — must have looked wistfully 
at the rich candies, cream puffs, cookies and sugar cakes which 
adorned the interior of the shop. 

From the days of 1800 until 1927 this bakery was one of the 
most familiar — and certainly one of the most fragrant — land- 
marks in Old Salem. It was here that the love feast buns were 
made and bread furnished for the Moravian community. The 
same building which then served as bake shop below stairs and 
home for the baker and his family above, still stands, being used 
as a tea room but preserving its original characteristics and archi- 
tecture in the construction of fireplace, floors, doorways and thick 

Before 1774, according to the record, there was no bakery for 
the community. The men living in the Single Brothers' House ran 
a farm, brewery, bakery and butchery. But due to the fact that 
decorum and conventionality decreed it not fitting for "persons 
of both sexes to go to the Single Brothers' House for bread " it was 
decided to establish a town bakery, "the size of the loaves to be 
determined by those baked in Bethabara and the price by the 
cost of barley." 

Shortly after the bakery was established, it is recorded that 
"Tory troops who camped on the Atkin (Yadkin) came through 
and took all the bread but because there was not enough for each 
to have a piece, they marched on. " 

It was early in 1800 that Christian Winkler came down from 
Lititz, Penn., to take charge of the bakery and establish it as an 
institution in his family and in Salem for over a century. Born in 
1766 near Blumenstein, Canton Bern, Switzerland, he was reared 
mostly by his grandmother in the teachings of the Reformed 
Church. Interesting events of his early life are recounted in his 


From 1800 to 1922 Winkler's bakery served the community 

memoirs now in the possession of his descendants living in Salem 

Seeking a religion more consistent with his own ideas, he even- 
tually found it, when, at the age of twenty-five, he was received 
into the congregation of the Unitas Fratrum (Moravian Church) 
at Neuwied, Germany. He joined the Diaconie of the Single 
Brethren, helping especially in soap-making. 

This was during the tumultous days of the French Revolution 
and not only France but all Europe was involved in the wars of 
the kaisers and French armies. After guarding the Sisters' House 
during a bombardment and experiencing many narrow escapes 
from cannon fire, he was sent to escort a group of about eighteen 
of the sisters to a safer retreat at Ebersdorf. 

Here he learned the trade of a baker and later was put in charge 
of the Brothers' House Bakery. In 1798 during a visit to Herrn- 
hut, he was received in Berthelsdorf as an Akolouth and the next 
year accepted a call to go to North America to lead the Single 
Brethren in Nazareth, Penn. Subsequently, he sailed from Ham- 
burg and landed in Philadelphia in 1799. 

After spending some time in Nazareth and Lititz, he was called 
to take charge of the town bakery at Salem and continued the 
work until 1827. When ill health forced him to retire, his son, 
William, carried it on until he was succeeded by his eldest son, 
Charles A. Winkler, in 1866. After his death in 1893, it was carried 
on by his wife until about 1915 when it was sold out but still con- 
tinued to operate under the name of Winkler's Bakery until dis- 
continued in 1927. 

The formula for love feast buns used for so many years by the 
Winklers is now in the hands of commercial bakers who furnish 
the buns needed during the year. But machinery now does what 
used to be done by hand; vast, modern ovens have replaced the 
old stone ovens of the past, and what was once a matter of days 
is now only a matter of hours. 

According to the carefully preserved formula, the making of the 
buns began at 6 o'clock on Friday evening before love feast was to 
be held on Sunday. A ferment was made of liquid yeast and po- 
tatoes and at 11 o'clock that night the sponge was made and put 
to rise in a bread trough. Between 4 and 5 o'clock Saturday morn- 


ing the dough was made and a layer of butter an inch thick put 
over the top of the dough and worked into it, after which it was 
set to rise again. It was carried in armloads to a table, pinched off, 
weighed, shaped into buns with the fingers and set to rise again. 
A mark resembling a double cross or M was cut in the top of each 
to prevent its blistering in baking. And many times the entire 
family worked all night long in order to have enough buns for a 
big love feast. 

In addition to the buns, Winkler's also made the sugared pret- 
zels used instead of buns at the pretzel love feasts during the year. 
Candy was another item for which they were famous although 
fancy sweets were still largely imported from abroad. The sugar 
was boiled in huge copper kettles still in possession of the family, 
poured on marble slabs to cool, flavored and pulled from a large 
hook on the back of the door. When white, cochineal coloring was 
mixed with part of it and evenly striped on the bulk of the candy 
which was rolled when cold and cut by hand into dififerent- 
flavored sticks. 

Twice a week, on Wednesdays and Saturdays, two members of 
the household carried a large basket of assorted cakes and stick 
candy to the academy, where they went to each room company 
and the girls were allowed to purchase as much as their allowances 
would permit. Love-drops and puff paste tarts were favorites 
which made the mouth water to look at them. 

And older citizens would add, " Don't forget those old-fashioned 
ginger cakes and ginger pop made at Winkler's Bakery." 

But eventually the property passed into private hands. The 
building remains essentially the same but its activities and atmos- 
phere have yielded partially to more modern influences. Only in 
name is the landmark now associated with the Winklers — that 
family which, like a dynasty, guided its destinies through the 
establishment of a new republic, the War of 1812, the Civil War 
and the beginning of the great World War. But the Winkler tradi- 
tion for delicious bread and cakes still survives in Salem of today. 

Annie Lee Singletary 



A ghost story of the early days of old Salem Tavern 

By John Henry Boner 

(While Salem is referred to as Schlafmutz and the characters are called by 

fictitious names, many readers will have no difficulty in identifying some of 

the early inhabitants.) 


ago, Ijetween Christmas and \ew Year's, in the town of Schlaf- 

Balthasor Grosnase, the pedagogue, had persistently said it was 
going to be a cold winter. He had heard the honking of wild geese 
in the sky and had seen other migratory birds going southward 
unusually soon; so he had prophesied of the weather with un- 
answerable arguments. One evening in the autumn, when smok- 
ing a pipe with Louis Drucker, whose almanack had come to be 
a famous annual among the farmers, the pedagogue had counseled 
the printer to let his weather prognostications promise many snow- 
falls and many hard freezes. "But you told me to do that last 
year," had answered Drucker, with a half apologetic laugh — for 
Grosnase's choleric temperament instantly repelled the slightest 
disparagement of opinion, and no one ever presumed to contradict 
him outright, excepting his wife. "Yes, you told me to do that 
last year, " repeated Drucker, "and it did not come true. \Ve had 
a green Christmas, and Peter Faul lost the only chance to fill his 
ice-house, because he kept waiting for thicker ice on the mill- 
pond. " When Grosnase felt quite sure that time would vindicate 
him in any assertion, he was not disputative. He was never so 
proud as when uttering the prophet's consolatory " I told you so;" 
therefore he did not fly into a rage with the printer, and the two 
worthies passed a pleasant hour in gossip over town matters and 
the latest news from the far west, which was then Ohio. 

Schlafmutz was a small burg nestled among the hills of North 
Carolina — a small town to boast such a commodious caravansary 
as that which adorned its principle thoroughfare; but this was 

Salem Tavern, center of social life in the early 
days, where the first President was entertained 

long, long before the day of railroads in the Old North State, and 
there was much travel through this place; besides, travelers would 
often journey an extra ten miles, even in midwinter, in order to 
reach the home-like comforts of the famous Schlafmutz Tavern. 
Such warm fires, such good food, such clean snug beds, and such 
faithful attention generally, from landlord, landlady, and hostler, 
were no every-day experience along the highway. And then the 
town was the seat of an exceedingly popular female academy 
whose patrons were numerous, representing the wealth of the cot- 
ton States, and they alone in summer filled the tavern to overflow. 
These grand Southern gentlemen came in magnificent style, too, 
with princely retinues, and their courtly manners were beautiful 
to behold. They paid high respect to all the peculiar customs of 
the village, and vied with each other in carrying away the endorse- 
ment of its good opinion. 

Schlafmutz was a quaint place, utterly unlike any other settle- 
ment in the South, both morally and physically. Its inhabitants 
were not of the Cavaliers, nor of the Huguenots, nor yet of the 
Romanists, who settled much of the southern section of the coun- 
try. They belonged to a peculiar foreign sect, however — a sect 
which, when persecuted, had found protection under the laws of 
Great Britian, and the "land" which they came here to colonize 
was a grant to their leader from Granville, then president of the 
Privy Council. They came under auspices which proclaimed them 
in many ways superior to ordinary adventurers, though on ac- 
count of their Puritanic principles they were sometimes reviled, 
and on account of their many odd ways they were frequently 
laughed at. Nevertheless they were generally respected. The hard- 
ships endured and the dangers encountered by them in reaching 
their land and founding a settlement, where the surrounding coun- 
try, for hundreds of miles in some directions, was an unknown 
wilderness, were astonishing. Of their adventures one record ex- 
ists, in a tome now long out of print, but which may be found in 
certain old libraries here and there. 

Architecturally, the village reminded the traveler of some berg 
of mediaeval Europe, with its massive stone houses, their deep-set 
windows and doors, their mullion and checker-work lintels, and 
their tile roofs. Even the wooden houses were grotesquely built, 

of heavy timbers, with a view of warmth in winter and coolness 
in summer as well as to one of personal security at all times. 

The "church" owned and controlled the settlement, granting 
private proprietary rights only to those of its own faith, not en- 
forcing this restriction in a spirit of bigotry, but with zealous 
regard for the unity of "the brethren." The church established 
male and female schools; the church built "choir-houses" for the 
special accomodation of its single brothers and sisters, the two 
houses being separated by a picturesque park; the church also 
built a tavern, and in front of the tavern, thirty feet from the 
ground, the church swung a sign heralding hostelry for man and 

This tavern was built of bricks of immense size; its walls were 
thick as a feudal castle's, and its steep saddle-roof, interspersed 
with dormer windows, was surmounted by a cupola and bell. The 
lower windows were protected by green shutters of solid wood, with 
heavy iron hasps. The porch, or verandah, was double, and ex- 
tended the length of the structure. The chimneys were gigantic. 
The kitchen, the floor of which was flagged with flint rock, had in 
it a fire-place capacious enough to receive half a cord of wood at 
a time. In this fireplace, which was furnished with many cranes, 
all the savory cooking was done. The dining-room floor, which was 
of oak, was kept whitely sanded. 

In providing this place of rest and refreshment for the weary 
traveler these good folk had manifested their guileless freedom 
from the prejudices of many pious sects by attaching to the office- 
room a compartment well stocked with the best home-made and 
foreign liquors. This compartment was entered (by no one save 
the landlord or his assistant) through a door leading from the 
main hall, or entry, as it was called, and communicated with the 
office by a sliding window. The office was called The Bar. The 
entire revenue derived from the establishment, including the sale 
of spirits, was conscientiously converted to church uses, among 
which were municipal improvements and the sending of mission- 
aries to heathen lands. 

Originally the tavern sign had borne, in addition to its legend, 
a device, which the storms of years had so obliterated and which 
tradition had so neglected that at the date of our chronicle its 


significance had become a matter of conjecture, and sometimes, 
it must be admitted, of quite heated controversy among the vil- 
lagers. There were those — such as Wilhelm Optiz and Johann 
Todengraver — who contended that the now vanished picture had 
represented a royal crown ; others — such as Heinrich Topfer and 
Gottlieb Rotz — that it had portrayed General Washington (who, 
let it be remembered, was a guest at the tavern in 1791, and for 
whom the paternal grand-mother — then a girl — of the editor of 
these chronicles had the distinguished honor of playing the piano), 
while one, Hans Kesselflicker, who was very old, and who, alas, 
had become a tippler, and was therefore not regarded as at all 
reliable authority, averred that the picture on the sign had been 
nothing more nor less than that of a big pudding, for he had paint- 
ed it himself. 

It was the custom of the warden of the church to lease the 
tavern to some reputable citizen, the warden requiring from his 
lease strict compliance with the letter and spirit of written articles 
lawfully executed. From a faded manuscript in the possession of 
the writer, the following items are copied, omitting names and 
dates, to-wit: 

"The said , having been entrusted by the 

said with the management of the House of En- 
tertainment at Schlafmutz, the said house or houses, together with 
all stables, meadows, pastures, orchards, gardens, etc., are hereby 
delivered to his care; to superintend and manage the same faith- 
fully, in such manner that customers and strangers may find it an 
agreeable House of Entertainment. 

"All customers, strangers, and travellers are to be received and 
treated in a kind, civil and obliging manner. The Keeper of said 
House and his Lady will make their stay as agreeable as possible, 
by devoting themselves to their service, giving them good Enter- 
tainment for a reasonable Price, keeping the house, rooms, and 
everything cleanly, and taking particular care that clean and com- 
fortable Bedding be always provided. 

"The Keeper of said house will have a watchful eye upon the 
Bar-Keeper — if he has one — and hostler, that they may perform 
the duties incumbent upon them in a proper and becoming man- 
ner, demeaning themselves in a respectful and accommodating 


Piano in the Wachovia Museum winch 
•was played for the entertainment of George 
Washington upon his visit to Salem in iJQi 

manner towards Ladies and Gentlemen, and take good care of 
their horses, &c. Though they may occasionally receive a gra- 
tuity from them, they shall never demand any, and in case they 
should be found guilty of asking any money, they shall forthwith 
be dismissed. 

"The Keeper of said house will, in particular, not suffering any 
species of gambling, fighting, cursing and swearing, immoral con- 
duct, frolicks, balls, dancing, unlawful assemblies of minors, or 
disorderly meetings, or political party dinners or suppers, nor will 
he tolerate assemblies of minors on Sundays during Church Time 
in or upon the premises, or anything at varience with the proper 
observance of Lord's Day, nor permit anything in the nature of 
theatrical Exhibitions or Shows. If any of our young people under 
age should loiter about, or under any pretence spend their time 
on the premises or amongst the customers, the Keeper of said 
House is expressly desired to show them oflf, and if he should not 
be obeyed, to give timely notice thereof to their parents, masters, 
or guardians. * * * 

"In conducting this House of Entertainment on principles of 
Strict Temperance in regard to the use of spirituous Liquors, he 
will not deal out any to such as are intoxicated before they enter 
the house, nor will he permit any to drink to excess on the prem- 
ises. He will be particularly careful to observe this rule whenever 
crowds of people are attending, for instance at Easter and other 
holy days, also at burials, elections and the like occasions. * * * 
The good example of himself and family, and their avowed en- 
deavors to honor by word and deed the Gospel, and conforming 
to our town rules and regulations, cannot but have a good efTect 
and influence upon others." 

Surrounded by such comforts as those which the keeper of the 
Schlafmutz Tavern was accustomed to provide, it is no wonder 
that travelers were anxious to arrive and unwilling to depart. The 
austerity of character which distinguished the little village in its 
earlier years had gradually yielded to more liberal customs, though 
"the world " was still kept away, and such liberties as were taken 
with new manners were quite harmless. 

On the afternoon of that cold day between Christmas and New 
Year's, in the winter which was fulfilling the prophecy of Herr 


Stairway in Salem Tavern 

(jrosnase, the landlord of the Schlafmutz Tavern — Christian Ingle 
— sat before the fire of his bar snugly hugging himself in a quilted 
blue gown and wearing on his bald head a black silk skull-cap. 
Occasionally a nod of uncommon gravity aroused him from snooz- 
ing, and he would go out on the porch to consult his thermometer 
and take note of its indications for future reference. Perhaps this 
day would come to be known as "the cold day, " and he could then 
give accurate information as to the degrees of temperature (m the 
historic occasion. He had kept memoranda of many important 
events, and was always proud to be questioned about them. For 
instance, he could tell when "the dark Saturday" occurred — a 
strange midsummer morning when the heavens suddenly grew 
wrathful and soul-appalling darkness fell on the town, so that 
many persons actually expected the world to come to an end. He 
could give the exact date when, on the occasion of another sudden 
thunder storm, many swallows, in frantic flight for their chimneys, 
had been impaled on the points of the lightning rods. 

It grew colder and colder. Retreating hurriedly from the biting 
wind which swept fiercely down the deserted street, Herr Ingle 
would liberally replenish the immense iron fire-dogs with logs of 
seasoned hickory and delight in watching the flames take hold of 
the wood. A tall eight day Dutch clock ticked drowsily away in 
a corner of the ofifice, its glass face cheerily reflecting the glow of 
the bed of coals. 

It was a lazy afternoon throughout the whole house. The land- 
lord's lady, as she was designed in the lease, sat by her own fire, 
softly humming a ballad that she had loved when a girl, and think- 
ing with pride of her fine boy baby asleep in his cradle, which was 
rocked indolently to the measure of the cadence by Nance, a fa- 
vorite little slave. The maids were huddled together in their own 
private room over a secret book of wonderful romances, in which 
delirious lovers meet by stealth to elude cruel parents, and finally 
married and were forever after happy. They were white girls, 
three in number, and were always uniformed in snowy aprons and 
Normandy caps. Jim, the negro cook, a mastodon in size, flanked 
by his scullions snored by the kitchen fire. 

The negro whose duty it was to attend to the office, having 
carried in numerous armsfuU of wood and piled it by the hearth 


To meet the demands of the iQth Century, 
the Tavern was expanded as shown in this 
picture. Early in the 20th Century the 
annex was detached but, for the most part, 
remains standing. 

for the night, leisurely proceeded to burnish the brass candlesticks 
and snuffers on the desk and to replenish with lard the great metal 
lamp which hung by the door. It was his custom while engaged in 
these duties to venture facetious colloquialism with his kind master, 
which was always tolerated and frequently encouraged; but to- 
day the man was noticeably thoughtful and reticent. 

"What, Dick," said Herr Ingle, taking a pinch of snufT, "have 
you swallowed your tongue?" 

"No, sah," solemnly answered the servant, with a counterfeit 
of his usual happy grin. 

"Have you seen a spook then, Dick?" 

"No, sah. Leaswise I ain't seed none, sah; but deys bin one 
seen. " 

It was not the policy of wiser heads in those days to dissipate 
the superstitious beliefs of children and servants. Such beliefs were 
rather fostered, with a view to the correction of refractory con- 
duct or larcenous proclivities. Indeed the belief in apparitions was 
not confined to children and servants. By many persons, and 
among that number many of the worthy citizens of the village of 
Schlafmutz, the mystical subject was regarded with profound 

"Ah-ha?" said Herr Ingle interrogatively, while he nodded his 
head in a way w^hich indicated to Dick that one might expect to 
be visited at any time by a hobgoblin. 

"Yas, sah," responded the negro, with dilating eyes; "dat little 
man bin seen agin. " 

"What little man, Dick?" 

"De Little Red Man, sah!" 


This time the ejaculation of the landlord was in a different tone, 
and was delivered with a different inflection. He rose and stood 
with his back to the fire and regarded Dick for some time with 
a serious face. Then he opened his tortoise snufT-box again, and 
poising a pinch of Macaboy near his nose, he added: — 

"Who has seen the Little Red Man?" 

Before he had finished speaking, the door opened, and old 
Kesselfiicker, the tippler, hurriedly slipped in from the cold entry- 


way, arching his back against the draft of wind and burying his 
grisly chin in multiplied folds of a green woolen scarf. Briskly 
shuffling to a chair by the fire-place, the privileged lounger, with- 
out greeting the host, spread his benumbed fingers to the warm 
glow and ordered a drink of brandy and nutmeg, which was duly 
served, and served with some degree of courtesy, too, for Kessel- 
flicker, though only a day laborer at odd jobs always paid his 
honest score. The landlord was about to repeat his question to the 
servant, when he noticed that Kesselflicker was convulsed with 
inaudible laughter. This old fellow was an inveterate practical 
joker. He being a jack-of-all-trades, and having been engaged for 
a week or more at repairing the cellar steps and shelving of the 
Brethren's House — the home of the legendary ghost — it dawned 
on Herr Ingle that his jocose customer was at the bottom of a 
hoax; and it took but an extra jorum of brandy to coax from him 
a confession. When Dick retired, Kesselflicker told how on the 
preceding night when the young brethren were quietly having 
a good time at their choir-house, in celebration of the holidays, he 
had slipped a red flannel blouse over his head and gone to frighten 
them ; how, in the midst of a half-suppressed peal of merry laugh- 
ter, he had popped his head in at the door of the refectory, where 
they were congregated, and shouted "I-yi! I-yi! I-yi!" and how 
a panic and a stampede had followed, resulting in his getting a 
bowl of hot punch gratis and in wild rumors about the reappear- 
ance of a long-laid spectre. 

This ludicrous revelation was in truth very comforting to Herr 
Ingle, for he, in common with other villagers, while skeptical as 
to spooks generally, really believed in the Little Red Man. 

The story went that years ago a curious dwarf, who always 
wore a red flannel blouse, was employed by the Brethren at their 
communal house as a sort of janitor. He was reputed to have come 
from somewhere near the Black Forest, in Germany, where, it was 
whispered, he had probably done some dark deed, for he not only 
steadfastly refused to give any history of his life, but would not 
even tell his real name. When asked what he should be called, he 
winked wickedly and said " Rothes Hanslein, " which means, liter- 
ally. Red Little Jacket. At first this strange little fellow was eyed 
with very great suspicion, but he conducted himself so decently 


that he soon came to be regarded with hut httle curiosity. One 
night — the same night in which the preacher's fine horse strayed 
from the unlocked stable, (and was never afterwards heard of) — 
the Brethren's house was discovered to be on fire. With great dififi- 
culty the flames were extinguished. The remarkable absence of the 
janitor was not seriously wondered at for an hour after all danger 
was over, when diligent inquiry was made for him. Knowing that 
through strange caprice, he sometimes slept in what was called 
"the deep cellar" (and it is so called to this day), the bewildered 
lirethren instituted search for him there. To the consternation of 
all, the red blouse which the dwarf had never been seen without 
was found lying on the cellar floor; but the dwarf himself could 
not be found, and he was never again seen. One of the brethren — 
the last to ascend the steep rock steps leading from the cellar that 
night — averred that when he glanced back over his shoulder he 
saw, by the dim light of his candle, two green devilish eyes glaring 
in the darkness, and that he distinctly heard a fiendish voice utter 
an imprecation. Certain it is that after that event the Deep Cellar 
was said and believed to be haunted. 

" It will be all the talk to-night," said old Kesselflicker, chuck- 
ling as he rewound his green scarf about his neck and shuffled out. 

The landlord poked the fire and laughed until the tears ran 
down his cheeks. 

It was the custom of the older burgers to congregate in the Bar 
of the Schlafmutz Tavern regularly after nightfall. A semi-circle 
of high fan-backed chairs was always arranged for them by the 
host, and there they sat and smoked their pipes and talked over 
town affairs. The intellectual horizon of this nightly assemblage 
was not a very comprehensive one, yet subjects more weighty 
than the construction of a new dwelling or the building of a bridge, 
or the best method of fattening swine, were not infrequently dis- 
cussed. They who composed these meetings were mostly trades- 
men and mechanics, though now and then one of the scholarly and 
more seclusive element joined them. However, no stranger would 
have taken those worthies as they sat around the fire for simple 
shop-workers. They showed a rigid refinement of dress and an in- 
flexible gravity of deportment which made them quite distin- 
guished looking. Many the innocent jokes by that fire-side; many 


Stairway to Deep Cellar of the Brothers' House 

the sage councils as well, and many the words of goodfellowship, 
of hearty kindness, and of noble human sympathy there spoken. 
But woe unto the young scion who by word or deed violated the 
time-honored customs of his fathers or compromised before stran- 
gers the dignity of the reputable village. This fire-side conclave 
was to such an one a secret and a fearful tribunal. 

Night drew on. The cold was so intense that the windows of all 
the houses were caked with frost. At the street pumps great icicles 
had formed. The town watchman, whose duty it was to patrol the 
dark streets and sound the hours l)y blowing a conch-shell, thought 
with dread of his approaching service as he looked at his lantern 
and staff; and the villagers who had settled in their accustomed 
places by the tavern fire and lighted their long-stemmed pipes 
thought of the passengers by the incoming stage-coach with fear 
for their safety in the bitter cold, for the coach had many miles 
to travel from the nearest settlement. 

All the chairs were occupied, and when Herr Grosnase stalked 
into the bar, great was the civility manifested in proffering that 
dignitary a place. There was Glockner, who kept the key to the 
church and rang the church bell every day at exactly fifteen min- 
utes before high noon, to inform the village of dinner-time; there 
was Drucker, who printed the famous almanac; there was Buch- 
enshmeid, who made guns so honestly that many of his pieces 
passed into heirlooms and are just as good to-day as ever, if one 
knows how to manage the flint and priming; there was Schneider, 
the tailor, whose father had repaired the surtout of Lord Corn- 
wallis when he passed through Schlafmutz on his way to York- 
town ; there was Zinner, the clink of whose busy hammer on copper 
and tin could be heard, day by day; there was Graver, the miller, 
who never took a spoonful too much toll; all the cronies were 

The conversation which the entrance of the pedagogue inter- 
rupted was concerning the rumored re-appearance of the specter 
at the Brothers' House after so long an interval. The subject was 
treated with semi-jocularity; but each worthy asking his neighbor 
what he thought about it too plainly manifested that the resur- 
rection of the long-laid ghost was almost sincerely believed in. 


After Herr Grosnase had ceremoniously unlaced his great cloak, 
taken it off, and with imposing deliberation laid it over the back 
of his chair, he scrutinized the company through the gleaming 
double-convex lenses of his golden spectacles, and he then asked 
with some severity: 

"What is this I hear about Rothes Hanslein?" 

The landlord, who paced to and fro, as was his custom, manipu- 
lated his yellow silk handkerchief and glanced at Kesselflicker, 
who shifted his pipe and glanced from under his slouched hat brim 
at the landlord. 

The circumstance of the apparition was respectfully related to 
Herr Grosnase by Glockner, who, while on his way to ring the 
church bell that noon, had received the facts from one of the young 
brethren that witnessed the appearance. For some time the entire 
body of burgers gazed mutely at the fire and twirled their thumbs. 

The presence of Herr Grosnase imposed on them an awkward 
silence, for the pedagogue's learning was so great and his deport- 
ment so assertive that he was really almost feared. 

The silence was broken by Kesselflicker who ventured to say 
emoliently that he feared the reappearance of the ghost at the 
Brothers' House boded no good for the town, for it was a notorious 
fact that some calamity had invariably followed the coming of the 
specter. The landlord sighed an affirmative response to this lamen- 
tation as he stood looking innocently up at the high Dutch clock, 
with his hands crossed behind him. 

"Nonsense!" roared Herr Grosnase, with such stentorian voice 
that Buchensmeid and Glockner rubbed their knees with nervous 
apprehension. "Nonsense," reiterated the autocrat, emitting 
sharp jets of smoke from his pipe and glaring fixedly at Kessel- 
flicker. i\nd he then gave it as his conviction, which had been 
arrived at by cogitation on the subject for some time, that the 
young brethren at the choir-house were no better morally than 
they should be; and that they indulged in amusements which were 
decidedly questionable. Had not young Himmel, one of their num- 
ber, the occasional church organist, on a recent Sunday been 
under some such unaccountable influence that he could not play 
for the congregation one of their most familiar hymns, but be- 
fuddled the singers by a jumble of insane chords, so that the 


preacher had to call on him to lead the singing? Had not lights 
been seen in the windows of the Brothers' House late at night — 
once even after midnight? These young men needed looking after, 
and he would have them to know that his eye was on them. They 
must not be playing such pranks and concocting ghost-stories to 
frighten the weak-minded and to terrorize children. The Little 
Red Man indeed! Bah! Pshaw! Who but a fool would seriously 
hear of such stuff! 

"But" mildly interposed old Kesselflicker, "the brothers say, 
one and all, that they saw the thing sure enough. " 

"Saw the thing sure enough" mimicked the pedagogue con- 
temptuously. "Then why must they behave like children? Why 
did they run from it? Why did they not make for it and make an 
end of it? Bah! I would have kicked it. Bah!" 

In the silence which ensued, the music of the horn of the stage- 
coach was heard in the distance, and each worthy glanced at the 
clock, felt relieved to know that Grosnase's sermonizing would 
soon be diverted, and that they would have the pleasure perhaps 
of seeing some visitor from the outside world. 

It was a signal always understood that if the driver of the coach 
blew a second time he had passengers aboard; and now for the 
second time the music of his horn came on the wind, and soon the 
grating of wheels on the frozen earth could be heard. 

The coming of the coach was nightly to the burgers a more or 
less stirring episode. To the landlord it was always a moment of 
considerable agitation; and now, while he trimmed the candles at 
the high desk where a register laid open, with ink and goose-quills 
by it, the servants rushed through the hall and congregated on 
the sidewalk ready to do the duty of the famous house of enter- 

After a final prolonged flourish of the melodious horn, the coach 
came briskly on against the tattering wind and swung up to the 
stepping-stone, the four horses champing their bits and shaking 
their harness, impatient for the stable. Three young men alighted, 
muffled in great-coats, and hurriedly made for the bar. 

The boot of the coach was unstrapped, the baggage tumbled out 
and carried in, and Dick, who held the lantern, was turning away, 
when the driver called out: 


A Stage Coach that stopped at the Salem 
Tavern — now in the Wachovia Museum 

"Ho-ho — one more, Dick — one more passenger." 
"One a-moa" echoed the studulous voice; and a dwarfish figure 
came climbing down over the front wheel, and, having reached 
the ground, stood tiptoe to receive from the driver a box as large 
as himself. The box was closely covered with a blanket, and seemed 
to require careful handling. The dwarf too was wrapped in a 
blanket, over which a waggish black beard hung, and his head 
was enveloped in a turban of red. 

Dick with his lantern curiously examined this uncommon-look- 
ing visitor, observing that he wore earrings like a lady, and had 
a skin like leather. 

"Take that fellow in, Dick," the driver shouted as he turned 
his horses for the stable-yard, "and tell your master that I picked 
him up on the road, and that he wants to lay in the stable to- 
night; at least that's all I could make out of his perlarver, for he 
can't even talk dog-latin. " 

The servant with his light and the dwarf with his box were 
about to enter the tavern, when the driver, checking his team, 
called back, "Here, Dick, fetch me that box. I'll just pitch it into 
the stable loft for the scamp. My opinion is that he is the devil 
anyhow. Don't go too near him, or you'll get bit, for he's got" — 
The startling admonition was cut short by the frantic efforts of 
the dwarf to recover his box, which the servant had seized and 
adroitly flung on top of the coach, which was again in motion. 
The turning wheel rolled the little fellow to the ground, and rising 
in a rage he approached Dick with wrathful gestures and rapid 
unintelligil^le words. The negro fled, closely pursued; and dashing 
into the bar, he shut the door, and braced it with his knee. 

The three young travelers, having informed their host that they 
were college students from a neighboring State on a holiday visit 
to the noted town of Schlafmutz, were stirring toddies with much 
hilarity at the window of the spirit-room; and they were being 
closely scrutinized by the company of silent worthies, who twirled 
their thumbs and seemed to be gazing into the fire. All eyes sud- 
denly turning to the frightened servant, whose demonstration was 
inexplicable, Herr Grosnase felt it incumbent on himself to master 
the situation. 


"What mean you, sir?" he asked austerely, as he approached 
the negro and glanced at the new guests a stately apology for the 
servant's conduct, "Who is out there?" 

" De debbil, sah," whispered the negro with wide eyes and 
shortening breath. 

The citizens turned stiffly in their chairs and looked about. The 
young gentlemen stirring their toddies whispered to each other, 
exchanged winks, and dashed off their jorums. Then one of them 
commanded a servant to open the door. 

The negro retreated; the door flew open, and the dwarf, with 
a fiendish face, entered. 

The blanket which he wore fell from around him and revealed 
a blouse of red. 

" Der Kleine Rothe Mann!" 

This was whispered by half a dozen voices. Kesselflicker was 
slipping out of one door, Herr Grosnase out of the other, and the 
landlord stood transfixed behind his decanter and glasses. The 
negro was gone. The dwarf stood mute, his features slowly relax- 
ing to a grin. There was a movement under the red blouse, at the 
spot which seemed to be a hunch on the dwarf's back. A long dark 
something fell to the floor with the undulation of a snake and was 
drawn up again. This phenomenon was not seen by any e.xcept 
Herr Grosnase, and the students, who stood at the dwarf's back. 

The pedagogue sank to the floor in a faint. 

"Why, good gentlemen," said the elder student, "why this 

No one answered. 

A thought seemed to strike the three students simultaneously. 
Advancing together in front of the dwarf, each gesticulated with 
his right arm as if turning a crank, and they questioned the strange 
creature with their eyes. 

The dwarf uttered a shrill succession of gibberish sounds and 
darted from the room, followed by the students. 

Meantime Kesselfiicker had disappeared. At this moment he 
was pounding vigorously on the shutters of the bishop's house; 
and that reverend dignitary, appearing with a candle in his hand, 
heard a faltering voice in the darkness, "Quick — quick — to the 


tavern!" And the bishop, as soon as his lantern was made ready, 
hurried out. 

Herr Grosnase was carefully raised from the floor and laid on 
a settee. A strong drink partially restored him to consciousness, 
and he held another in his hand to fortify the first. The good land- 
lady, attended by her maids, surrounded the pedagogue, while the 
dumbfounded landlord whispered with the citizens. 

Suddenly there burst upon the assemblage a peal of unearthly 
sound. At the same moment a huge dog, upsetting men and chairs, 
ran yelping through the bar, chased by a little imp which had hold 
of the dog's tail and trailed on the floor a prehensible appendage 
of its own. The wild music drew nearer and nearer and broke in 
at the very door of the room, its vibratory shrillness complemented 
by a deafening chorus from the three students. 

A frantic stampede was imminent, when the landlady, who had 
preserved a sedate equanimity throughout, pointed to the door 
with a shout of laughter, and in marched the wretched little 
Italian organ-grinder, whose monkey now released the howling 
dog and began to dance in the middle of the floor. 

How those dignified old burgers would ever have separated 
creditably might have been an awkward matter. They were at 
least saved this embarrassment by the appearance upon the scene 
of a most unlooked-for personage. Suddenly in the midst of them 
stood their bishop, at whose indignant and imperious command 
the organ-grinder ceased playing, and the astonished students 
became silent. The bishop spoke not a word. He saw about him 
what seemed to be evidences of a carouse such as he had never 
dreamed of witnessing in Schlafmutz. His angered and bewildered 
eye roamed from one to another until he espied Herr Grosnase 
lying on the settee with a glass of liquor in his hand and surround- 
ed by the maids. Then his choked voice found vent, but in only 
four words : ' ' This is too much ! ' ' He caught the pedagogue by the 
ear and sat him up. He clutched the lapel of the pedagogue's coat 
and led him out. Not a tongue moved. 

Worse than all, poor old Kesselflicker firmly convinced that the 
devil had really come in the shape of the Little Red Man, but so 
tangibly that he might possibly be destroyed, found his way 
through the darkness to the church and furiously rang the bell 


for an alarm, and half-clad citizens ran wildly out into the night 
crying "fire," but could find none. 

For many a day the ludicrous mistakes of that night were 

\ I ' / / / c / /. 




is a monument to its builder. Erected in 1819, built along the 
sturdy lines employed by Moravian architecture, it remains today 
as a significant reminder of what was good and substantial in the 
past of the community of Salem. 

This is the John Yogler House. It was built by a man of genius 
and character, whose forebears came to North Carolina from New 
England in 1770. They took residence in the settlement of Broad- 
bay, and it was there that John Vogler, son of Michael V'ogler and 
Anna Maria Kunzel, was born in 1783. He was granted permis- 
sion to move to Salem shortly after his nineteenth birthday. From 
that time to the present day the community of Salem has been 
enriched by the life and work of this gifted man. \'ersatile as he 
was, no contribution made by him is more conspicuous today than 
the house he erected as a family residence. 

The building was constructed on what was known in former 
times as Lot number 64. When he acquired the property the cor- 
ner was occupied by the Reuter House, started in 1771 and com- 
pleted in 1772 by Gottlieb Reuter. In acquiring the Reuter House, 
John Vogler became heir to its "improvements." Shortly there- 
after he moved this house to the rear of the lot, where it still 
remains, and began construction of the pleasant, well planned 
brick residence which stands today with dignity at 700 South 
Main Street. 

The plans, as usual in such cases, were subm.itted to the Church 
Board for approval. They contained provision for a brick resi- 
dence of two stories, to front and be built directly on Main Street. 
The house proper was to measure forty by thirty-two feet. Addi- 
tional plans outlined for future erection a small wing, to be four- 
teen by twelve feet. This addition was to contain a laundry and 
a smithy. Vogler drew his own plans, and it is reported that they 
were complete in all respects save one. Tradition has it that he 
was a somewhat bewildered man when, after viewing his plans 
with warm approval, a member of the Board announced that 


The John Vogler House, built in 181Q 

there was one serious omission. In his concern with substantial 
construction, perfection of line, and detail, young Vogler had 
failed to include an important adjunct to a two story house known 
as a staircase! Probably this caused merriment, but the gifted 
planner was not dismayed. He calmly stated that he would insert 
a staircase without changing any essential lines of his proposed 
home. This he did, and the narrow, steep staircase at the back of 
the hall, much resembling a ship's companionway, is probably 
a verification of this interesting story. 

A monograph on Salem by the American Institute of Architects 
is mainly concerned with plans and cross sections of detail em- 
ployed in construction of the Vogler House. The fact that this 
house is the only building in Salem thus treated is proof that its 
builder possessed architectural talent in no mean degree. The 
interesting inequality of distance between the front windows on 
both sides of the house is revealed. The dentil adornment above 
the windows and across the top of the house is interesting to a 
degree. Solid brick construction in outer and inner walls is taken 
up in some detail. A close study of the plans of this house show 
that the builder understood tensile strength and other cardinal 
principles of architecture. The graciousness of proportion in vari- 
ous rooms, the charm of Dutch corner fireplaces, with flaring 
arches, and the broad, perfectly hung doors exist today as proof 
that John Vogler was a man of considerable genius. 

It is interesting to know that his descendants are at present 
prominent citizens of the community. They have never permitted 
the house built by their ancestor to pass from family possession. 

Ida Wilkinson 




forefathers adhered to the European custom of placing their build- 
ings flush with the street. Where then but in old Salem will you 
find a house climbing backward up a steep hill and ending half- 
way up the hill, with the front door at the rear? 

The warden, or Treasurer, of Salem Congregation, who had 
charge of the external affairs of the Congregation, such as keeping 
buildings and streets in repair, was to live and hold office in this 
building. It was therefore substantially constructed of brick with 
rough rock foundation, which, in years later when the steep part 
of Bank Street was cut down, was covered with gray stucco. The 
large basement opening on Main Street was used as a storage 
room for repair materials and as a laundry room, with cellars in 
the rear. The Warden lived upstairs and had his ofilice in the 
northwest room, the entrance being from Bank Street, up rock 
steps, into the yard, and front-back porch and only outside door. 

The first Warden to occupy this house was Samuel Stotz, who 
was followed by five others, the last one being Rev. Samuel 
Thomas Pfohl, who died in 1876. After his death his widowed 
daughter, Mrs. Mary Landquist, occupied the rooms and in one 
of them conducted, for some years, a primary school which will 
be recalled by many of her former pupils. 

About that time various changes were made in the adminis- 
tration of the finances of the Moravian Church. The Warden's 
office was abolished and Mr. James T. Lineback, who had been 
book-keeper and surveyor for the Province, in the Administration 
Office, was appointed Treasurer of the Southern Province of the 
Moravian Church, of Salem Congregation, and of Mission Funds 
— with offices in the old laundry and store room on Main Street. 
These were renovated and furnished for the Treasurer and his 
brother-assistant, Mr. J. A. Lineback, and called locally the 
Land Office. Here the financial affairs of the whole Southern 
Province of the Moravian Church were administered: land was 
sold after being surveyed, accounts were kept and funds were 


cared for. Moravian literature was sold here: hymnbooks, text- 
books, Passion Week Manuals; as well as Bibles from the Ameri- 
can Bible Society. The maj)s and surveyor's records left by Mr. 
Lineback have furnished valuable information and are still con- 
sulted. Mr. J. T. Lineback resigned in 1904 and was succeeded 
by Mr. J. A. Lineback, who resigned in 1914, at which time Mr. 
E. H. Stockton was elected Treasurer. The in funds 
handled had made it necessary to construct a strong, fire-proof 
vault in part of the deep cellar in the rear of the southwest ofifice. 
The work of the ofifice having increased very materially, a change 
in location was considered necessary, and in 1930, during the 
administration of Rev. E. H. Stockton, the building erected in 
1896 as a Boys' School House having become vacant, the ofifice 
was transferred to the main floor of that building, which provided 
more space. This is now called the Moravian Church Office. 

Thus ended the Church's use of the Warden's House except 
as a residence for ministers and their families. And now the offices 
are occupied by tenants; sewing machines and yard sticks take 
the place of surveying instruments, ledgers and typewriters; 
dresses and furniture slip covers are carried out of the old Land 

Catherine Elizabeth Leinbach 

112 ] 



i^"' '-,3^ 




' ^^^^' 






The Land Office on South Alain Street 



still Stands at 724 South Main Street. The Weekly Gleaner, the 
first newspaper in this section of North Carolina, was published 
in 1829 by this aggressive and versatile writer. Mr. Blum and his 
bachelor sons, Levi Y. and Edward T. Blum operated the print 
shop in Salem for more than sixty years, beginning 1827. In this 
same house on Main Street the Blums kept a quaint old book 
shop, selling books of all kinds, and during the holiday season 
carried an especially fine selection of Christmas cards and folders. 
The finest of these were Christmas scenes in color, with the snow 
"frosted" on, giving a scintillating brilliance, and the cards bor- 
dered with silk fringe in wondrous colors. 

The print shop, which stood at the rear of the home, was torn 
down many years ago. However, the old printing press, together 
with copies of The Weekly Gleaner, The Farmers' Reporter and 
Rural Repository, and The Peoples' Press, published by the Blums, 
are today preserved in the Wachovia Museum in Salem. 

Blum's Almanac has made its yearly appearance since its first 
publication in 1828 by John Christian Blum. This publication is 
in great demand throughout this section, and many farmers would 
not dare plant a crop without first consulting the signs of the 
zodiac as given in the almanac. The household hints, and jokes, 
as well as many interesting facts in the almanac are sufficient in 
number to last through the winter. The cuts of today are the very 
same quaint cuts used in the almanac in the very beginning. 

The Peoples' Press, established in 1851 by John Christian Blum 
and his sons, Levi V. and Edward T. Blum, succeeded the early 
publications of the Blums. They published The Peoples' Press 
until 1890 when it was acquired by Clarence Crist and George 
Keehln. In 1892 The Peoples' Press was purchased by and con- 
solidated with the Western Sentinel. 

Both John Henry Boner, the beloved poet of Salem, and his 
cousin, Francis Eugene Boner, literary geniuses, were at one time 
on the staff of The Peoples' Press. One of John Henry Boner's 


John Christian Blum, Salem's Pioneer Publisher 

prose articles appears elsewhere in this book. John Henry Boner, 
with the sanction of the Blums, established The Salem Observer 
in 18G7, but it lasted only a year, for Boner was soon thereafter 
called to other fields. 

Francis Eugene Boner established the Western Sentinel in 
May 1856. However, ill health cut short the newspaper career of 
this brilliant man, and after his death a few years later it passed 
through several hands until in 1890 it was bought by J. O. Foy, 
who owned the five year old Winston paper, The Twin City 
Daily. Mr. Foy then added the word "Sentinel" to his daily 
paper, thus calling it The Twin City Daily Sentinel. The words 
Twin City Sentinel still appear in the name of our daily after- 
noon newspaper. Thus the history of the Sentinel, as established 
by Frances Boner, goes back eighty-five years, but the chain of 
publication of newspapers, forged link by link by men of ability 
and perseverance goes back to the first publication of The Week- 
ly Gleaner in 1829. 

Algine Foy Neely 

The Blum House — 724 South Main Street 



grouped in three classes; first, those who grew vegetables; second, 
those who specialized in trees and shrubs; third, those who pre- 
ferred flowers. Of course there was much overlapping, but a few 
notes may be made of those gardens which tradition places in the 
first place in each class, for, alas, most of these gardens are no 

Practically half of the adult population of Salem belonged in 
the first class, for every household of necessity had its vegetable 
garden. It is said that Dr. J. F. ShafTner introduced the first 
tomatoes, "love-apples," supposed to be poisonous, and planted 
for beauty until experience led to their admission into the food 

The garden of Mrs. L. M. Fries lay low, along Tar Branch, its 
chief feature a very long hot-bed, in which were started the plants 
which were transplanted into the rows running the width of the 
garden. Equally typical of another location was the de Schweinitz 
garden, on the eastern slope of the hill behind Church Street. The 
hill was terraced and the terraces were laid off in squares, with 
grass walks between, and a grass bleaching-ground to the side. 
Around the edges were "keys of heaven" and lilacs, and other 
flowers, and in the early spring the "wash-house flowers" (bluets) 
bloomed profusely behind the small house in which the family 
laundering was done. Currants, gooseberries and raspberries also 
belonged in these vegetable gardens, and wherever possible there 
were one or two apple trees, peaches, plums, a damson tree, and 
a quince tree for jelly. An asparagus bed was a prized addition to 
some gardens. 

In the second class the town of Salem as a whole led with its 
public Square with rows of sycamore and other trees; and the 
Cedar Avenue leading by God's Acre. The Square still exists, as 
beautiful as ever, but the ancient cedars finally succumbed to 
city smoke and age, and had to be replaced by willow oaks. Of 
the privately owned lawns the oldest well remembered was the 


one on South Church Street belonging to Mr. FeHx Leinbach, 
which had a magnoHa, fine cypress trees, and other evergreens 
not commonly grown in Salem. 

Further north on Church Street was the home of Mr. James 
Lineback, almost buried in evergreens, tree box and hedge box, 
and oaks covered with ivy. He is said to have introduced the 
acuba to the community, and liked to raise all kinds of odd things, 
among them a pink lily-of-the-valley. 

At the south end of Cherry Street there were two well kept 
lawns. Both had fine old forest oaks and large elms as foundation 
planting. In addition the Patterson lot had large tree box, and in 
the side lot an interesting circle of cedars. In the Fries place 
there was a rather large variety of ornamental trees, such as Japan 
Gingko and Kentucky Cofifee Tree and Magnolia Grandiflora, 
several kinds of maple, and numerous flowering shrubs, also a 
circle of English box-bushes, and a Euonymous hedge. 

There were many flower lovers in old Salem, and quite a num- 
ber of gardens are remembered for their beauty. The first to 
specialize in roses was Miss Lucinda Bagge. Her house stood east 
of Church Street, and had a garden sloping eastward down the 
hill, laid ofif in small circular plots. The space immediately around 
her house was full of roses, which persisted long after her day, 
and until her house was torn down to make way for the Rond- 
thaler Memorial Building. 

All along that hillside were gardens. The Schuman-Bahnson 
garden still exists and will have its own article in this book. The 
de Schweinitz garden has already been mentioned but its fine box 
bushes may be noted. North of that was a house occupied by Mr. 
Charles Kremer; and that front yard was full of flowers, — white 
violets, lilies-of-the-valley, crocuses, single hyacinths, snow-drops 
(now called snow-flakes by the florists) ; and there was a tree of 
blue plums which in season were exchanged for early June apples 
from the de Schweinitz garden. 

Further down Church Street was the garden of the Academy, 
largely cultivated by the pupils who delighted in their little flower 
beds. Two or three summer-houses added to the attractiveness 
of the place, which was a favorite resort for picnickers. Beside the 
stream which runs through the Academy Pleasure Grounds were 


Garden of the Misses Pfohl on Academy and Liberty Streets 

blue forget-me-nots, brought from Europe by some returning 
traveler, one tradition says Miss Acklie Herman and another gives 
the credit to Mrs. Denke, both teachers in the Academy in their 

The Philip Reich garden had a climbing fern as its specialty. 
The Sisters House had a large garden which persisted until the 
building of the Alice Clewell Dormitory of Salem College. The 
garden of the old Salem Tavern ran back to what is now called 
Tar Branch, then a clear little brook, and large cedars with 
benches under them afforded a delightful resting place for travel- 
ers. The Peterson garden, on Salt Street, (South Liberty Street) 
was surrounded by a rock wall, covered with a Mexican Pear 
which was much admired. 

Back of Winkler's bakery, on Main Street, there was a garden 
with walks spread with tan-bark brought from the tan-yard, also 
a summer house, and many flowers. Mrs. Winkler made funeral 
designs before there was a professional florist in the town. Many 
of the gardens used flat stones instead of tan-bark, others had the 
grass walks already mentioned. The Land Office Building, further 
up Main Street, had a garden with many flowers, — hollyhocks, 
blue-bottles, hyacinths, "keys of heaven," purple shade, star of 
Bethlehem, twelve o'clocks, four o'clocks, bleeding heart, and the 
recently introduced honeysuckle vine, whose fragrant sprays of 
bloom were in demand for the young ladies to wear to parties. 

The Brothers' House garden, on the west side of Main Street, 
like the Tavern garden, ran back to and across the Branch, and 
offered space for both vegetables and flowers. Further north on 
Main Street were the sunken gardens, of which the Mickey gar- 
den had box bordered squares and grape arbors and the Welfare 
garden had cedar trees and holly and many flowers. It is said that 
Miss Jane Welfare brought the anemone to the community, and 
that she was constantly trying something new. 

In addition to her vegetable garden Mrs. L. M. Fries had many 
flowers, and a small greenhouse, which was half pit. There she 
grew camellias and other winter-blooming flowers, and under the 
slat floor, on the ground, she had a beautiful moss which could 
be used to great advantage with her flowers. Mr. Edward Belo 
had a larger greenhouse at his home, and a fine formal garden. 


In the Garden of the Brothers' House 

For those who did not have greenhouses a southern window 
provided place for such winter-blooming flowers as calla lilies, 
cyclamen, geraniums, and primroses, grown in the flower pots 
made in the Salem potter-shop. Others wintered their more tender 
plants in pits, so dug that they had plenty of sunlight, and could 
be protected in severe weather. Still others built small glassed-in 
rooms on the ground against the south wall of the house, and 
wintered their more tender plants there. 

Mention may be made of a few other shrubs and flowers which 
were usually found in the gardens of old Salem — syringa, sweet- 
shrub, snowball, cydonia, crocus, flowering almond, spirea, althea; 
tiger lilies, madonna lilies, fire lilies, white day lilies, red spider 
lilies; white and blue iris; safTron, marigolds, scabiosa, bachelors 
buttons, old maids (zinnias), lantana, Johnnie-jump-up, phlox, 
verbena, moleweed, petunia, portulacca, butter-and-eggs, violets, 
touch-me-not, jonquils; woodbine, trumpet-vine, cypress-vine, hop- 
vine, and the white star jessamine. Most of the old gardens also 
had their beds of herbs. Mint and parsley, sage and thyme were 
common, then there were rue and tansy and wormwood, summer 
savory and "katta benedict" (cardus benedictus). And surely no 
old garden was complete without lavender, and rosemary — 
"that's for remembrance!" 

Adelaide L. Fries 




many generations, stood the Van VIeck house, later known as 
Miss Amy's house. Here the sisters. Miss Lou and Miss Amy, 
lived together for years and years. It was a small house, yet it had 
a number of rooms, each one crowded, as memory recalls, with 
heirlooms and mementos. Everything in the house had a history. 
Built flush with the street, there was a little front stoop, all lat- 
ticed in except for an oval opening on two sides, like an old 
fashioned frame for a face looking out. 

On the north side was a tangled garden where honeysuckle ran 
riot, and sweet shrub grew almost to the eaves of the house. As 
neighbors rocked on their front porches on summer evenings, they 
enjoyed the fragrance of the old garden even far up the street. 

The sisters were regarded with affection by all their acquaint- 
ances, which were very many, for their family had been residents 
of Salem since the early 1800's. Miss Amy liked to relate that they 
were descended from the dukes of Argyll, and had a big silver 
watch and the family seal that had been the property of her noble 
ancestors. The peculiarities of these ladies only served to endear 
them to the community. They were cultured, and musical to such 
a degree that they were in almost constant demand for entertain- 
ments and evening parties. There were no movies in their day, 
and music was a major feature of entertainment. They played 
duets both on piano, and piano and guitar; they sang too, and 
Miss Amy was a wonderful accompanist. She was truly a born 
musician, for old programs show that she played besides piano 
and guitar, organ, violin, and mandolin. 

One whose accompaniments she often played, says of her: "I 
doubt if there ever has been any one person anywhere, who played 
so willingly, and for so many years, (she was ninety-three when 
she died) and has to adapt herself to the ways and mood of so 
many different persons." Noted musicians who came from New 
York, Boston and other large cities expected to find a distin- 
guished performer to accompany them. When they saw little Miss 


Amy they thought she could never play the parts; after the first 
rehearsal, however, they were relieved, expressing surprise and 

Childish recollection of Miss Lou and Miss Amy pictures the 
dear old ladies — though no one dared call them old — in their 
quaint and handsome dresses. It was a source of wonder where 
and when these Godey's Ladies' Book gowns were made, with 
their shirrings, ruffles, pleats and pufifs. Miss Lou's gray hair was 
always looped back over her ears, and she wore a neat little cap 
of black lace. She delighted to gather the children round her and 
to tell them stories. These always began "Once ui)on a time, 
many, many years ago. " Miss Amy's hair stayed brown, and she 
wore a row of finger curls across her forehead. She was quite vain 
of her hair, which reached the floor. She related that the poet, 
John Henry Boner, sometimes called on her, and once had asked 
her to take down her hair. Of course she didn't — dear mother 
would have been shocked! 

The sisters were devoted, and never spoke of each other except 
as "dear Sister. " Miss Lou considered Miss Amy a "tender blos- 
som," as the baby of the family, and a tender blossom she re- 
mained to the older sister, even to sixty years, and as long as Miss 
Lou lived. 

It was sad indeed when dear Miss Lou was called to her heaven- 
ly home, leaving Miss Amy alone in the house. Now she must go 
to spend the nights with her married sister on the next street. She 
always carried a lighted lantern through the dark alley. 

This sister was a good friend of a dear old lady close to us. 
Girlhood memories recall her coming to spend the afternoon, with 
her hair done so queerly, all augmented as it was with braids that 
didn't match. She carried her "finger" work in a little black 
basket with a lid and two handles. Often she brought a book to 
read aloud, and together they enjoyed "Timothy's Quest." It 
was entertaining, yet perhaps better attention would have been 
assured if a few front teeth hadn't jiggled so as the reading pro- 

Sometimes in passing Miss Amy's house one would notice a 
shutter cracked open. Perchance it would open wider, and there 
was Miss Amy's face peering out, and asking one please to mail 


i I ■ 

Miss Amy in Her Doorwav 

Miss Amy and her married sister 

Miss Amy and Miss Lou, gifted musicians of yesteryear 

a letter. Two or three ginger nuts or part of a paper of pins would 
be handed out with the letter. (Shades of Scottish forbears!) 

One day the married sister met with a tragic accident with her 
gas stove, being terribly burned. Miss Amy exclaimed, "Now 
Sister will be disfigured for life!" She was past eighty then. Merci- 
fully, she lived only a short time, and now Miss Amy was all alone. 
No relative nearer than Cousin Charles, in Ohio. A faithful colored 
servant looked after her needs, and the neighbors were always 
kind and solicitous. Realizing that she, too, would one day be 
called home, she began to designate where her cherished pos- 
sessions should go. Her beloved piano was to be given to the 
Primary Department of the Sunday School, where Miss Amy had 
been accompanist as far back as many could remember. The rock- 
ing chair that John Henry Boner had sat in was for one friend ; 
the sofa, this clock, and that cake plate were for others. 

Cousin Charles came from Ohio to attend her funeral, as she 
had recjuested, and to receive what she had bequeathed him and 
other distant relatives. He had barrels of old letters, invitations 
and programs to sort over; letters from former pupils of Salem 
Female Academy, begging Miss Lou and Miss Amy to spend part 
of their vacation with them; telling them how they missed their 
music, and thanking them for their kindnesses in school. A friend 
writing of them says: "These old letters show that for generations 
this was a talented, affectionate, refined and religious family, and 
we shall never have another Miss Amy." 

Recalling memories of the "dear sisters" is like finding pressed 
flowers in an old album, whose faint perfume stirs affectionate 

M. B. O. 




South Main and Bank streets gave the name to Bank Street. 

This is not the first buikling, however, to occupy this site. 

In the year 1783, John Rights, the first hatter of Salem, ob- 
tained permission to move his hat making estabHshment from the 
"skin house" across the street where the Belo Home now stands. 
Church authorities permitted him to Iniikl a house for his dweUing 
and hat shop. 

Some years later the hatter moved to a new location, and the 
house was taken over by the church to serve as a home for widows. 
The widows' house was removed in 1847 to make way for the bank 

From the beginning Salem prospered. There was extensive 
trade backed by a wide variety of industries. Financial affairs 
were largely managed by the church administration. 

When the church yielded its control to private enterprises, the 
need for a banking institution was apparent. 

The leading financier of the community seemed to be Israel G. 
Lash. Tradition says that he used to lend money privately before, 
during and after his connection with the Bank of Cape Fear. 

In 1804, the Bank of Cape Fear had been established, and Lash 
decided to operate a branch of this organization in Salem. 

The cornerstone of the brick building to serve as Salem's bank 
was laid in 1847. Building was slow, and it was not used until two 
years later. 

The bank was opened for business in 1849, and Lash conducted 
it as a branch of the Bank of Cape Fear until 1865. After the Civil 
War he established an independent bank called the First National 
Bank of Salem, which survived until 1879, when illness caused 
him to retire. 

William A. Lemley served as cashier and treasurer of Lash's 
bank in Salem and later was identified with the Wachovia Nation- 
al Bank in Winston. 

127 ] 

The old brick building still stands as a monument to recall what 
was once the financial center of Salem. 

The iron doors of the old bank safe are now on the Clemmons 
vault in Salem Cemetery. 

Douglas L. Rights 

:-^--' \:7Z^' f"jf\< 

Confederate Money from the Bank of Salem 


The brick building that housed Salem's first bank 



finds a welcome retreat from the rush and confusion of our busy 
world. Almost under the shadow of the old Moravian Church is 
situated the home of Mrs. Henry T. Bahnson. When she came 
here as a bride in 1874 the house was already a landmark of earlier 
days as it was built in 1823 by Abraham Steiner. Later on he sold 
it to Dr. F. H. Shuman, a practicing physician and a lover of 
flowers. It is interesting to note that during Dr. Shuman's de- 
clining years he freed his slaves by sending them fjack to Liberia. 
He and his place are mentioned by the well known botanist. Rev. 
Lewis David von Schweinitz, in his "Flora Salemitana. " From 
1812 to 1821 Dr. von Schweinitz collected and named several 
thousand plant specimens found in and around Salem. These 
specimens are now preserved in the herbarium of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences in Philadelphia and have proven to be of inter- 
national interest to well known botanists, many of whom have 
visited Salem in order to learn more about them in their native 

Dr. and Mrs. Bahnson succeeded Dr. Shuman as owners of the 
old house and as lovers of plants and fllowers. They continued to 
develop and improve the charming garden which they found. 

The house is built of hand-hewn timbers mortised and pinned, 
the walls filled in with brick and faced with clapboard. It is situ- 
ated directly on the street. From the double porches in the back 
a vista of beauty extends for quite a distance down a gentle slope. 
Here the garden is laid out in terraced squares which contain a 
great variety of blossoms producing a continuous change of gor- 
geous color as the seasons come and go. 

The flower garden is separated from the vegetable garden by 
a very fine old hedge of English box. The path leads on down 
through the squares of vegetables until the hill drops away abrupt- 
ly to a glen fifty feet below. In this sheltered spot Dr. Bahnson 
made a very picturesque pond from a small brook and throughout 
many years of successful practice of medicine and surgery, he 



The Bahnson Lily Pond 

kept this place of beauty as his principal hobby. Here grew numer- 
ous kinds of pond lilies, Egyptian lotus and the Victoria Regia. 
The last named, a tropical plant, had never before been grown in 
the United States outside a greenhouse. From a very small bulb 
it produced a leaf large and strong enough to hold a child of ten 
years seated upon it. A photograph of this unique scene may still 
be viewed in the Doctor's ofifice. 

Dr. Bahnson enjoyed hybridizing and produced a very beauti- 
ful pink water lily which he named "Nymphaea Odorata Caro- 
liniana. " On the steep hillside were planted mountain ash, white 
pine, mimosa and fruit trees. Terraced steps led down to the pond 
and on the side opposite the rolling woodland of Salem College 
afforded a fitting background. This small lily pond was indeed 
a sequestered spot of quiet beauty such as is seldom seen, and it 
was with a sense of regret that Dr. Bahnson finally' had the water 
drained off when he could no longer give to it the time and atten- 
tion which it deserved. 

With the passing of the good Doctor, the home and the garden 
have not lost their atmosphere of peace, contentment and charm. 
Loving hands and a loving heart have continued to make them 
an even greater source of joy and inspiration to all who linger 
here. It may be truly said that this is the one garden of Old Salem 
which has remained untouched by the ravages of time but has 
instead acquired a hallowed beauty which seems almost a part of 
heaven itself. 

Louise Bahnson Haywood. 

'The garden that I love is full of Light, 
It lies upon the sloping of a hill, 
Where Dawn first stirs the curtains of the night. 
And the breeze whispers when the Noon is still. 

The garden that I love is full of Peace; 
The voices of the vale are faint and far. 
The busy murmurs of the highway cease. 
And silently, at evening, comes the Star. 

The garden that I love is full of Dreams; 
Visions of joy gone by and bliss that waits, 
Beyond the furthest verge of sunset gleams, 
With the wide opening of the Golden Gates. " 

— Florence L. Henderson. 
f 132 1 

Rear view of Mrs. H. T. Bahnson's 
House on Church Street 



the tavern. He asked that it be enlarged westward in order that 
it give space enough for the carrying on of his trade as a cabinet 
maker, and for the storing of his lumber. In 1842 the lot was ex- 
tended 60 feet back to the stream. 

The Siewers brothers (John and Jacob) then built a new work- 
shop, 30 feet by 40 feet and two stories high, on the back of the 
lot, and took the old shop for the storage of finished furniture and 
to lodge their apprentices. Many pieces of this beautiful hand- 
made furniture are still treasured in homes of old Salem. 

Later additions were made to the new workshop for residence 
purposes and now this building fronting on Walnut Street is used 
for a dwelling. 

Having established his workshop, John Siewers made plans for 
a 13^ story brick house to be 30 feet by 40 feet, with a middle 
passage and four rooms. The plans were approved in February, 
1844, and in November of the same year he took his bride to his 
new home. This house on the corner of Main and Walnut Streets 
has recently been restored. 

Grace L. Siewers 


Siewers house built almost a century ago 


thouc;h its great, deep and strong foundations of unyielding 
stone were not laid in the earliest days of Salem's history, as was 
the case in many another surviving building, yet this fine, mas- 
sive, and most impressive Belo House, is a noted landmark revered 
by every resident of the ancient town, and is an irresistible at- 
traction to every visitor. Situated on a steep hillside of Main 
Street, it was, in its day, by all odds, the most pretentious and 
striking dwelling in the town, besides, having on the lower level, 
by far the largest and most imjwrtant store room. Its immense 
size, its imposing front, its lofty and impressive Corinthian col- 
umns, and its delicate lace-like iron grill work, all attract the eye 
and fire the imagination. Likewise the broad steps on the south 
leading up to the dwelling entrance on a level with the second 
story, and the life-size and life-like animals that guard them from 
top to bottom, attract the eye, and the memory of them lives 
long within the mind and ever leaves a lasting picture there. 

It was not until 1837, that the remarkable Edward Belo, capi- 
talist, merchant, foundryman, cabinet maker, farmer and civic 
leader, received permission from the church to purchase his moth- 
er's home which stood on the lower part of the present Belo lot. 
He had married the beautiful and talented Carolina Amanda 
Fries whose father lived across the street, and wished to build 
a home for her. Later he purchased his brother's house directly 
on the north, thus acquiring sutificient room for all he wished to 
do, and then obtained permission to erect his building. Some 
thought his plan too pretentious and costly for a good Moravian, 
who was supposed to keep to plainness and moderation in every 
part of his life and conduct, and to live without show of any kind. 

Having great skill as a worker in wood, Belo is said to have 
carved out with his pocket knife the patterns for the beautiful 
acanthus leaves, that grace the tops of the great columns, as well 
as for the lace-like iron grill work, using goods boxes for material, 
and to have cast them in his own foundry. But there was another 
interesting side to this remarkable man, of so many and so diver- 


Belo House, the most imposing building in 
Salem. Once a private home, housing em- 
ployees; now used for benevolent purposes 

sified talents. He loved plants and flowers and was an expert 
gardener and florist who enjoyed working with his plants, ex- 
hibiting the results of his labors, and distributing them among 
his friends. On the higher, almost level ground, running back 
from the entrance to his home with appropriate landscaping, he 
laid out a wonderful flower garden which became one of the show 
places of the town. Here, too, were complete and magnificent 
green-houses and conservatories. Some of us still remember with 
astonishment and delight this beautiful spot and the alluring 
roses and other flowers which grew in such boundless profusion, 
filling the air with their spicy and fragrant breath. 

If the bricks and timbers in the old house could speak to us to- 
day, what stirring stories of the past they could narrate. Some 
might be tragic, some sad, perhaps, but many would surely be 
bright and happy and some, even, grotesque and gay, fraught 
with a thousand memories of distant days that can come back no 
more, forever. Perhaps they would tell of the time when Edward 
Belo's family of attractive children, having grown into fine young 
manhood and womanhood, this home became the social centre of 
the town, and how, to the horror of some of the good Moravians, 
a report became current that the young people would meet in the 
great dining room and actually engage in the old square dances, 
for the waltz and later figures were then unknown. Some pious 
sisters having heard of this fearful, worldly pass-time, in deep 
concern and distress, went to the elders and demanded that some- 
thing be done about it. A leading member of the board, also trou- 
bled at the report, felt however, that he should know the facts 
before passing judgment, and, with great hesitation, decided to 
find out for himself how bad was the situation. Secretly he entered 
the house and placed himself where he could see and not be seen. 
At the next meeting he declared that he was obliged to report to 
the other elders that the best and finest young people of the com- 
munity were gathered together, that everything was quiet, order- 
ly, respectable and in good taste and that he felt those boys and 
girls, thus engaged, were doing far better than if they were loafing 
on the streets or in the stores engaged in talking nonsense or 
gossiping about their neighbors, as did some who seemed to have 
more tongue than brains. 


Certainly, if those steps could talk they could and would men- 
tion one incident of absorbing interest and great electric thrill. 
In 1861 Alfred Belo, oldest son of Edward, tall, graceful, talented, 
well educated and popular, heartily disapproved of war, as did 
the Moravians generally and was strongly opposed to secession. 
But, when North Carolina finally withdrew from the union, he 
immediately formed the first military company from this section 
and was chosen its captain before he was twenty-one years of age. 
On the day referred to, his company was starting away for the 
battle fields, and he was standing upon those stone steps at his 
home. About him were gathered his brave and stalwart soldiers 
and the people of the town. A beautiful, artistic, embroidered. Con- 
federate flag, of finest softest silk, was floating over and about the 
gathered throng, kissed by every passing breeze. Beside the gal- 
lant captain, also stood his sister, Nellie, his cousins, Carrie and 
Mary Fries and Bettie and Laura Lemly, whose deft and skillful 
fingers had lovingly and reverently fashioned that perfect pennant 
floating there. The touching presentation speech was clothed in 
such eloquent and tender words, that tears filled the eyes of 
those assembled. A few moments later, at the square, good bishop 
Bahnson, with fervent prayer and tender benediction, blessed 
and consecrated the going forth, and bade them farewell. On 
many a battle field this Salem flag in proud triumph waved, and 
the young captain, soon made a colonel, gained for himself un- 
dying name and fame. 

Refusing to surrender at the close of the war he made his way 
to Texas, became owner of the greatest newspapers in the state, 
a millionaire, the confidential friend and advisor of Grover Cleve- 
land, and a great power in both politics and finances. But he 
never ceased to love the city of his birth, the Moravian Church 
and the house in which he first saw light. Finally he purchased 
the interests of all the other heirs and presented the entire prop- 
erty to a corporation of ladies to be known as the " Belo Home of 
Salem" and to be always used for benevolent purposes. It was, 
indeed, a princely gift and serves its purpose well, filling a press- 
ing need at this time, and promising much for future days. 

Wm. a. Blair 


A corner fireplace with mantel shelf 

The century-old Home Church parsonage 



cease to be mere structures of brick, wood and stone, and assume 
color and atmosphere from their occupants. In like proportion, 
the same buildings, when deprived of their occupants, lose their 
individuality as beloved homes, and become mere collections of 
deteriorating building materials — pitiful reminders of a dead and 
gone "past. " Such is the present condition of the rapidly disinte- 
grating dwelling on South Liberty Street, known as the Old Boner 

Not pretentious, but quite commodious, this dwelling was 
erected in 1787 by Martin Lick, a cabinet-maker and carpenter. 
It was well constructed, on heavy rock foundations, with brick 
filled walls, a basement and a cellar. Its "story and a half" in- 
cluded, in addition to the main living rooms, a kitchen and back 
porch, as well as a long shop room on the north side, which boasted 
its own front door made of diagonal boards meeting in a line up 
and down its center. The front door to the living portion, made 
on the same diagonal pattern, was divided into upper and lower 
sections. A front porch and a dormer window, added at different 
times, were not parts of the original structure. 

We may imagine how much this new house must have meant 
to those first occupants, from the following terse item found in 
the official Diary: 

" May 22, 1787. Martin Lick and his wife moved into their new 
house today, although neither doors nor windows have been 

Martin Lick died about eight years later, and in the year 1795, 
Johann Leinbach, grandson of the original pioneer of that name, 
was married to Elisabeth Transu of Bethania, and brought his 
bride to this house. They were pious, industrious people, and here 
they made for themselves and their eight children a happy home. 
Johann had learned in the Brothers' House the shoemaker's trade, 
an important one in those pre-machine days, and probably in 
the shop on the north side he, his apprentices and journey-men 


Birthplace of John Henry Boner^South Liberty Street 

plied their trade. Later he purchased and operated below town 
a linseed oil mill, a saw mill and a cotton gin, and from his home 
he sold the products of these industries, as well as molasses, salt, 
etc. Thus originated the name, Salt Street, which was used until 
the latter part of the nineteenth century, when it was gradually 
changed to Liberty Street. In a little building behind his house 
he kept his oil, retailing it from an open barrel provided with a 
faucet. His little grandson, Edward, who later became the well 
known musician, often amusing himself by drawing oil into a cup 
and pouring it back into the barrel, on one occasion was unable 
to turn the faucet ofT. He was frightened and quickly ran away, 
leaving the oil running. When discovered, it had covered the floor 
to the depth of nearly a foot. 

Johann Leinbach was a hunter of note, accustomed to rise 
about 3 or 4 o'clock a. m. He cooked his own breakfast, using 
a quaintly shaped little coffee pot with a very pointed lid, but 
lately destroyed by rust. On one occasion, as he was hunting deer 
northwest of town, he sat down to rest, saw a doe and took aim, 
the load passing through the head of the doe, and wounding the 
buck that just then ran up to such an extent that two deer were 
secured for the hunter with one shot — a notable event in those 
days of primitive fire arms. He was also very fond of playing chess, 
frequently continuing one game through several evenings. In the 
year 1838 Johann Leinbach died, and his widow moved from the 
house that had been their home for forty-three years. 

It must have been very soon after this time that the property 
was acquired by Thomas Boner, who, with his auburn haired 
young bride, Phoebe Nading Boner, began the third housekeeping 
in this historic house. Thomas Boner plied his trade as a hatter 
in the above forementioned shop and in later years engaged in the 
mercantile business. His wife made their home comfortable and 
added the charm of flowering plants. On the south side of the 
house was her lovely flower garden and there, too, was the out- 
door oven attached to the kitchen chimney. A fine vegetable gar- 
den sloped down toward the little stream, in the rear, and beyond 
was a well filled orchard. In this comfortable home were born 
three children. The death of the third, Mary Francisca, at the age 
of three, was a great grief to her parents. The two boys, Eugene 


Alexander and John Henry, both displayed exceptional talent and 
brilliance as they reached maturity. Eugene was perhaps the more 
gifted, possessing both musical and literary ability to a marked 
degree. Unfortunately, however, he lacked the steady qualities 
necessary for the performance of work that is permanent, and in 
addition, became an early victim of a fatal disease. Both sons, 
after reaching manhood, resided almost entirely away from Salem. 
After their father's death, while their mother still resided in the 
old home, Eugene, with his family, lived for a time in the vacated 
shop and the room over it. John Henry, in the mean time, kept in 
touch with his home through occasional visits. Although not defi- 
nitely known, it is supposed that during the very few years in 
which the Boner family lived and presided in the Salem Tavern, 
their Salt Street house was closed. 

The property has changed hands many times, often being occu- 
pied by tenants, sometimes of doubtful quality, and the condition 
of the old house has gone from bad to worse. 

Little need be added here, to the various articles that have 
appeared from time to time, in recognition of John Henry Boner 
as a man of letters; however it is gratifying to know that his long- 
ing for a final resting place in the old Salem Graveyard has been 
fully satisfied, and his affectionate regard for his old home and the 
tragedy of its pitiful decline are best expressed by himself. Surely 
the appeal contained in the following quotations is a challenge to 
create from the fragments of this once loved home a shrine befit- 
ting the memory of the "Sweet Singer," whose first inspiration 
was born within its walls. 

Written on the back of an old photograph of the house were 
found these lines: 

" In this house in Salem, N. C, I was born January 31st, 1845. 
In '46 we moved to the old Salem Tavern and about '49 back to 
this place. In this home I wrote my first poem and this house is 
the subject of 'Broken and Desolate.' J. H. B." 

Cornelia Lavinia Leinbach 



There are some scenes that we should not 
Revisit, though most dear they be — 
Some things we nevermore should see — 

Some places that should be forgot. 

One such not long ago I went 
To look upon in mournful mood, 
Awhile about the place to brood — 

The old home where my youth was spent. 

My very footfall on the floor 
Was unfamiliar. It did seem 
To me like walking in a dream — 

All sadly altered — home no more — ■ 

A shattered house — a fallen gate — 

A missing tree — red barren clay 

\^'here flowers once stood in bright array — 
All changed — all broken — desolate. 

But when I came to stand within 

The room where summer moons had shed 
Soft luster round my dreamland bed 

When my young life was free from sin — 

The room wherein ambrosial hours 
Were spent in cool and blissful rest 
While gleaming stars went down the West 

And all the land was sweet with flowers — 

I could no more — I pressed my face 
Against the silent wall, then stole 
Away in agony of soul, 

Regretting I had seen the place. 


The John Henry Boner House Today 



Street was built in 1823, and in that same year the owner, John 
Henry Leinbach, moved into it with his bride. He and his wife 
Hved there during their entire married hfe; their six children were 
born and grew up in this house. John Henry Leinbach was the 
master shoemaker for the community. His shop was in his home, 
and the floor of the room which was then his work-room still 
shows the hollows worn by the feet of those who worked at the 
benches. Usually he had one or two apprentices learning the trade 
under him, who shared the home with his children. 

After his death the home place became the property of his 
youngest son, Henry, who passed his entire life of ninety-three 
years there, with the exception of a few months spent elsewhere 
in learning the photographer's art. The place now belongs jointly 
to his son. Dr. R. F. Leinbach of Charlotte, and his daughter, 
Mrs. Lucy Leinbach Wenhold, who makes her home there. There 
are in it treasured objects which date back to its earliest occu- 
pancy, and some pieces of furniture that were put into the house 
when it was built. These are mute evidence of the continuity of 
the life and family ownership which have distinguished the house 
for a hundred and eighteen years. 

Lucy Leinbach Wenhold 


The John Henry Leinbach House — 508 South Main Street 



is the first house in Salem built back from the street. All the earlier 
buildings faced directly on the sidewalk, and when Mr. Leinbach 
purchased his large lot on the "old muster ground," at the edge 
of town in 1855, the church fathers waited upon him, and said 
he must build his house on the extreme corner, flush with the 
street. The lot measured one hundred eight feet front, by three 
hundred back, and cost eighty-one dollars and thirty-eight cents. 

The purchaser seems to have had his way, for the lovely old 
home stands well back from the street, among its trees and 

Today few people ever heard of the "old muster ground, " and 
now the residence is in the heart of town. 


The Edward Leinbach House — 235 South Church Street 



this residence is indeed just that. The late James T. Leinbach 
took his young bride to his new home "Oak Cottage" in 1859. 
I n a few brief years he was left a widower, and then his brother's 
family joined him in the home. Here were births, baptisms, 
marriages, and funerals. During the long span of "Uncle James' " 
life — he lived to be eighty-four — -many happy family gatherings 
were enjoyed, especially on his birthdays. 

His brother Julius was the originator of the Christmas star, 
used in the church decoration, and also later in homes and 
porches. Much painstaking and exacting ingenuity went into its 
construction, and the stars were in great demand. Length of days 
crowned this brother's life too, for his age was ninety-six years. 


The Home of the Christmas Star 



Christmas! The fragrance of Christmas — -just what is the defi- 
nition of that fragrance? To be sure the deUghtful odor of pine 
and cedar, and all the woodsy greenery of fern and moss; yet in 
old Salem, to this is added a composite essence of burning wax 
tapers and the alluring aroma of Moravian love feast cofifee. Come 
with me to the Christmas Eve love feast for the little children, 
in the more than century old Home Church, and see for yourself. 

After a week of busy preparation, the church doors are thrown 
wide in happy welcome to the expectant wee ones, and how won- 
derful a sight starts eyes and cheeks aglow. You would know by 
the very air and fragrance it is Christmas Eve, even though you 
were a blindfolded Rip Van Winkle. It has been the custom of 
Salem folk time out of mind to dress their church with beautiful 
elaboration at Christmastide, with a wealth of wreaths, festoons 
and arches, and a wonderful star, suspended from the center of 
the lofty ceiling, whence the festoons radiate. The star is of min- 
ute mechanism, with scores of separate rays, the whole illumi- 
nated by an electric bulb. That, however, was yesterday; day 
before yesterday, the star was lighted by a tiny cup of oil with 
a wick, suspended inside. Even more beautiful than the star is the 
splendid copy of Correggio's Nativity, painted in Saxony years 
and years ago. This has the place of honor on each succeeding 
Christmas, and illuminated from the rear, the rich blue of the 
Madonna's robe as well as the other splended colorings so loved 
by the old masters, are wonderfully brought out. 

But let us return to the love feast for children. On the day be- 
fore yesterday it was called the "Little Wach," and was indeed 
a tender little service, as it is today. Then the littlest ones were 
carried in parents' arms, while those a little older came with their 
day school teachers, and occupied the front pews. To the tiny 
ones of that day, coming from homes of the utmost simplicity, 
what a wonder it all was ! The sweet smelling church, the splendid. 


Home Church Christmas Decoration 

joyous music (which was never of the simple variety here) ; and 
the minister's story of the Baby Jesus, the angels, the shepherds, 
and the wise men. The narrative is punctuated by innocent prattle 
occasionally, but nobody minds, they are all happy together. 
Directly come the white aproned ladies with buns and that deli- 
cious coffee, whose aroma has already been enjoyed. Even the 
babies can have a little love feast coffee at Christmas! Sometimes 
the musical jingle of a teaspoon marks a pause in the singing, 
as a too-eager little hand reaches out. At last the grown-ups are 
singing the joyous chorale, composed by one of Salem's native 

"Christ the Lord, the Lord most glorious. 
Now is born, oh, shout aloud," 
when the vestry doors open once more, upon a blaze of light, this 
time, for now they are bringing in the little hand-made wax tap- 
ers, all brightly burning, one for every child. Then the happy 
gathering disperses in the Christmas twilight, keeping the little 
light burning as long as mother deems safe. Today, it is no longer 
the " little" watch, except in thesizeof the children, for the service 
has grown to be one of the largest and most distinctively enjoy- 
able of the entire year. Taken compositely it is a happy inter- 
mingling of fragrance, peace and good will, music of several 
varieties, lights and gladness. 

One of the unique customs of the long ago in Salem has all but 
died out. This is the Christmas " Putz, " or decoration in the 
homes. While Christmas trees and Christmas wreaths adorn thou- 
sands of homes today, the "putz" was of an entirely different 
character. On the day before yesterday it was arranged without 
a Christmas tree. A large table would perhaps be placed between 
two windows, and on this would be arranged a miniature land- 
scape, with lakes and streamlets, picturesque worm fences, and 
woolly sheep dotting the hillside. Oh, yes, the children helped with 
the putz; they hunted the moss, and pine, and cedar, and red ber- 
ries, and what fun it all was! Quaint little nosegays of box and 
scarlet berries and immortelles were pinned to the plain white 
window curtains, and with the yellow wax candles, which every 
house mother borrowed the moulds to make, the putz was com- 



Christmas putz showing the Nativity scene 

Stockings were "hung by the chimney with care" then as to- 
day, though the sugar plums were far simpler than now. A few 
sticks of striped candy were a luxury to be had at only one shop 
in town, and with an apple or two, a bit of peach leather, a wax 
candle, and some Christmas cakes, the children were quite 

As the years passed, simplicity grew to elaboration, and the 
time came when a whole side of a room would be taken up with 
a putz. Now sometimes there would be two, or even three Christ- 
mas trees, with the most wonderful Lilliputian scenery at their 
base. Here would be mountainous eminences, whose frowning 
summits would be crowned with feudal castles; streams and foun- 
tains of real water, where toy ducks and fish disported themselves 
under the bridges. Almost always a mill, whose big wheel turned 
by an arrangement of sand or water, was an important part of the 
decoration; the dusty miller was sure to have leisure to stand in 
the doorway, while a boy on a mule with a bag of corn was just 
as surely to be seen approaching. Often in a miniature forest 
nestled a log cabin, whose colored occupant was engaged in the 
laundry business outside, the result of her labors already appear- 
ing upon the line. Perhaps in a corner to itself a snow scene might 
be depicted, with a high steepled little church, all snow laden, and 
the windows rudd\' with lights inside. The scene of the Nativity 
was often wrought out in the putz, with the stable and manger 
bed, Mary and Joseph and the Babe, the wondering cattle, and 
the star sure to rest over all. 

While some of the delightful old Christmas customs of Salem 
have passed with yesterday, one there is particularly pleasing, 
which obtains as of yore. This is "Christmas cake" baking. Oh, 
yes, there are cakes at Christmas time in every home, yet not 
"Christmas cakes." You must know these are baked at no other 
season, and the recipes for them are handed down in families for 
generations. Here is another of the fragrances of Christmas. Just 
open your neighbor's door some morning about the middle of 
December, and what a spicy whifif of deliciousness rushes to meet 
you. Surely Christmas is just around the corner, and if you are 
of the initiated, you will remember how mother used to allow you 
to stay home from school on this auspicious day. You haven't 


forgotten, either, how ill you were for a while, after having taken 
charge of the scrapings of the cake bowl, and taking upon your- 
self the duty of disposing of all the legless ducks, the tailless foxes, 
and headless rabbits. The discomfort was soon forgotten, how- 
ever, as a regular part of the proceedings, and you were happy 
again cutting out bears, birds, dolls and roosters from the soft 
brown dough. In the evening, when Mother was almost too tired 
to move, for often more than a bushel of the wafer-like cakes was 
made, you were sent with a plate of the most perfect little shapes 
to each house where you had borrowed cutters, for some of the 
other neighbors would be sure to send a borrowing in a day or two. 
On yesterday and day before yesterday, when simpler pleasures 
obtained, were not the children happier? And when the cele- 
bration of Christmas centers in the church, and the spiritual 
significance is paramount, are not the joy and blessing of the 
season more deeply experienced? 

M. B. O. 




church, with its high peaked roof and hooded entrance, dating 
from 1800. 

Of course Easter is prefaced by the season of Lent, which is 
observed by Moravians with no rigid sense of outward restrictions. 
Easter begins for them with Palm Sunday, the first of Passion 
Week, and before the morning service the trombone band an- 
nounces the day with glad "Hosannas" from the roof of the 
church office, till the quiet Sabbath air seems "sprinkled with 
holy sounds." The interior beauty of the old church is enhanced 
by the presence of many stately palms, and the service is signal- 
ized with splendid music, including the Hosanna chorus, which 
has become a tradition in the congregation. In the evening is be- 
gun the reading of the Passion Week Manual, which is continued 
throughout the week. This is a compilation of the narrative of the 
Gospels, setting forth the last week of Christ's life before the 
crucifixion. The Manual is divided into the Acts of Sunday; the 
Acts of Monday, and on through each day, all in the exact words 
of Scripture. Often the reading is interspersed with a verse or two 
of some hymn, expressive of what has just been read, and the 
effect of the united singing produces a spiritual oneness of interest. 

On Thursday afternoon two services are held, when the events 
leading up to the institution of the Lord's Supper are reviewed 
in a most solemn manner, and in the evening the Holy Com- 
munion is celebrated. 

Good Friday is a day of utmost solemnity. In the morning ser- 
vice are read the Acts of Christ's trial before Pontious Pilate; in 
the afternoon the congregation re-assembles to review with deep- 
est reverence the Acts of the Crucifixion. This is held at the exact 
hour that the Great Sacrifice took place, three o'clock, when "the 
sun was darkened, " and "the veil of the temple was rent in twain 
in the midst. " This is the most impressive hour of the entire week, 
and reverence lives in every pew of the old sanctuary. The western 
sunlight filters through the storied windows in subdued colorings. 


Bishop Edward Rondthaler, who, from 

iSyj to i(iji, conducted the early service 

on Easter Day in Old Salem 

Presently a soft minor melody floats from the organ loft, the 
depth and richness of the tones stirring ones sensibility to higher 
things, and seeming to lift one above the littleness of eartfi. 
Appealing, tender strains enfold the kneeling congregation during 
the silent prayer which closes the narration of our Lord's final 
anguish, and the yielding up of His Spirit. With profoundly 
stirred hearts the asembly joins in singing; 
"O, head so full of bruises, 

So full of pain and scorn. 

Midst other sore abuses 

Mocked with a crown of thorn; 

O, head ere now surrounded 

With brightest majesty, 

In death now bowed and wounded. 

Saluted be by me." 
It is in a chastened mood that the people disperse from the dim 
old church into the glorious spring sunshine, realizing, perhaps, 
as never before 

"That dear blood for sinners spilt 

Shows my sin in all its guilt; 

Ah, my soul. He bore thy load; 

Thou hast slain the Lamb of God." 
Of all the Easter observances the one oftenest misunderstood 
is the Great Sabbath love feast on Saturday afternoon. This, to 
Moravians, is second in solemnity only to the Holy Communion. 
It is a simple and very ancient service, having been handed down 
to the Brethren's Church from apostolic days, when the disciples 
broke bread together. It is largely a service of song, the music 
being a special feature. The "ode" that is sung on this occasion 
has three distinct thoughts expressed in the hymns: Worship and 
Fellowship; Rest in the Grave; and Remembrance of Those Gone 
Before. Touching and tender indeed is the sentiment, and those 
who "came to scoflf remain to pray." 

And now Easter Day is ushered in. There has been little sleep in 
Salem during the previous night. The whole city, by this time, 
is taxed to the limit with visitors, those arriving late with no 
reservations made, have spent the night in their cars, or in walk- 
ing the streets. Shortly after midnight sweet, distant music seems 
to penetrate ones dreams; it comes nearer, and finally rouses one 
from slumber, when it is recognized as the trombone band, play- 


Cedar Avenue beside the Moravian "God's Acre" 

ing the fine old chorales of the church at the street corners, in the 
still darkness of the first hours of Easter Day. These are the same 
grand old strains that thrilled over the hills of central Europe 
more than two hundred years ago on Easter morning; and again 
announced the dawn of another Resurrection Day amid the wilds 
of the new world, doubtless arousing the Indians to awe and 

It is an unforgettable experience to be awakened in the utter 
stillness of the night by this burst of joyous, inspiring, triumphant 
music. As one listens he is made to feel that verily "He hath 
delivered us from the power of darkness, and translated us into 
the kingdom of His dear Son." 

By five o'clock in the gray dawning a mighty concourse is 
assembled in front of the church. The bishop appears on the steps 
voicing the glorious announcement "The Lord is risen. " The peo- 
ple respond, "The Lord is risen indeed." A reverent hush falls 
upon the gathering. 

Throughout its gracious movement the service is impressively 
spiritual. The majestic hymn " Hail, All Hail, Victorious Lord and 
Saviour" is sung by the congregation with trombone accompani- 
ment, after which the litany is read responsively. Then the assem- 
bly falls into line, four abreast, led by a division of the band and 
the church choir. The other division of the band is placed further 
back in the procession, and as the march proceeds up the narrow 
old street into the tree-shaded avenue leading to the graveyard, 
the musicians continue to play chorales antiphonally. 

To be one of the thousands in that mighty stream of humanity 
is an experience never to be forgotten. It pours itself quietly and 
reverently through the green bordered, leaf shadowed walk in the 
increasing light, and within the arched gateway of God's Acre, 
as they love to call the burying ground. The stately music con- 
tinues while the people are assembling in the many walks, beside 
those sleeping here for long, long years. 

Although the throng numbers many thousands, there is no con- 
fusion, and not the slightest disorder. Everything is carried out 
with quiet and orderly precision. Loud speakers and a nation-wide 
hook-up detract in no way from the impressive reverence. When 
all are assembled, the litany is resumed, the Bishop's voice carry- 


Moravian Graveyard 

ing the beautiful words, which are really the Moravian confession 
of faith, far into the early hush of another blessed Easter Day. 
The sun conies up from behind the trees during the prayer that 
we be "kept in everlasting fellowship with those of our brothers 
and sisters, who, since last Easter Day, have entered into the joy 
of their Lord." 

The impression is one that cannot be defined, here in the peculi- 
arly beautiful, dew-besprinkled city of the dead. All the grassy 
mounds are of uniform size, with no imposing monuments, each 
grave marked with a simple, flat slab — all alike, for the rich and 
the poor, the learned and the lowly, one great family. Many of the 
headstones are so old as to be illegible, but those of more recent 
date have been scrubbed gleaming white, and loving hands have 
placed quantities of exquisite flowers on the graves, all dewy- 
sweet in the first faint glimmer of the Easter sunshine. 

To those who have gone so far as to have lost sight of the deep- 
er, spiritual significance of Easter, this unique observance of the 
blessed festival brings a solemn realization of its gracious mean- 
ing, and even the most worldly cannot but be touched with its 
distinctive beauty. 

M. B. O. 


Cedars bordering the avenue that leads to 

the Moravian graveyard. These valiant 

trees succumbed to the hand of time and 

have been replaced by laurel oaks. 



to express their gratitude to the large number of friends, whose 
hearty co-operation has made its compilation a distinct 

In addition to information, photographs, and the making of 
many special pictures, deep appreciation is felt for the confidence 
of the many who comprise the list of subscribers. 

Mr. and Mrs. T. Holt Haywood 
Dr. Adelaide Fries 
Mr. W. H. Watkins 

Mr. H. E. Fries 

Mr. a. W. Oerter 

Mrs. Frank Stockton 

Misses Elizabeth and Margaret Pfohl 

Mr. and Mrs. C. T. Leinbach 

Mr. Henry C. Lindley 

Mr. Frank Jones 

Misses Emma and Mary Leinbach 

Mrs. J. M. Cabaniss 

Mrs. T. VV. Davis 

Mr. Woodrow Wilson 

Mr. James Wommack 

Wachovia Museum 

The Publishers 

Chamber of Commerce 

Journal and Sentinel 

Rev. R. Gordon Spaugh 



Mrs. D. J. Lybrook 

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Mr. and Mrs. C. A. Cannon Jr., Concord, N. C. 

Mr. and Mrs. William C. Cannon, Concord, N. C. 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Hayes, Concord, N. C. 

Miss Mary Ruth Cannon, Concord, N. C. 

Miss Mary Pemberton, Concord, N. C. 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Jones, Concord, N. C. 

Mr. and .Mrs. George Benoit, Fredericksburg, Va. 

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The Misses Knox, Salisbury, N. C. 

Mrs. Frank VV. Stockton 

Mrs. H. Montague 

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Miss Elizabeth Brookes 

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Mrs Robert M. Co.\ 

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Mrs. J. H. Leinbach 

Mr. and Mrs. Agnew H. Bah.nson 

Mrs. W. J. Hamner 

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Mrs. Nat Curl 

Mr. E. I. No.xoN 

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Rev. Douglas L. Rights 

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Judge and Mrs. Oscar O. Efird 

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